Recognition of Philippine Independence by the United States, Manila, 1946.Finally, long-awaited independence arrived on the fourth of July. Even though it was a wet and muddy day and the monsoon was blowing, a quarter of a million people gathered in front of a makeshift grandstand at the Luneta, facing the Rizal monument. With a huge ovation they greeted General MacArthur who had come all the way from Tokyo. Prominent American politicians and delegations from 23 nations also graced the occasion.“Against a backdrop of shattered buildings, mute witnesses to the horrific battle to liberate Manila”. High Commissioner Paul McNutt. Read out President Truman’s proclamation announcing independence and establishing a republic. McNutt then solemnly lowered Stars and Stripes as President-elect Manuel Roxas hoisted the Filipino flag amidst the ringing of bells, sounding of sirens, and deafening cheers from the crowd.The swearing into office of Roxas and Vice President-elect Elpidio Quirino followed the flag ceremony. President Roxas’s inaugural speech offered a sweeping panorama of Philippine history from the first stirrings of nationalism in the second half of the 19th century to its embodiment in the newly independent nation-state. Roxas described the Philippines as a child nurtured by American tutelage until she had matured enough to play an independent role on the world stage—the first to do so in archaic Asia.Not everyone in fact, regarded the declaration of independence on 4 July as the culmination of a historic process of tutelage. “The Americans granted you freedom on that day,” said an American journalist, but the aging General Aguinaldo countered: “No, you merely restored the freedom that you took away from us in 1898.”Regaining full sovereignty from the United States did not necessarily lead to a blissful existence that independence had symbolized and promised since the Revolution. At the center of controversy surrounding the independence declaration in 1946 were the provisions of the executive agreement and provisions on parity rights for Americans. When these were made public, a good segment of the population voiced its disapproval.