In addition to being viewed as effeminate, the high heel was criticized as being an affront to god in the early 18th century. Heels artificially increased height and therefore went against divine design. This pair of red silk shoes featuring appropriately low, red heels is said to have been worn by a pope in the first half of the 18th century.


  • Title: Italian Papal Shoes
  • Date Created: 18th century
  • Physical Dimensions: Length: 29 Width: 10.4 Height: 16.2 cm
  • Photographer: Ron Wood
  • Rights: Copyright © 2017 Bata Shoe Museum, Toronto, Canada (photo: Ron Wood)
  • External Link: http://www.batashoemuseum.ca/
  • Medium: Silk, leather, silver, gold, wood
  • Bbibliographic references: Semmelhack, Elizabeth. Standing Tall: The Curious History of Men in Heels. Toronto: Bata Shoe Museum Foundation, 2015

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