Local movie directors, actors, and actresses were utilized in the creation of propaganda films, such that Dawn of Freedom (1944) was co-directed by Gerardo de Leon and Tatlong Maria (1944) was starred in by Carmen Rosales, Liwayway Arceo, and Norma Blancaflor.  

During the war, Rosales’ first husband, Ramon Navales, was killed by the Japanese. Rosales joined the guerrilla movement afterwards, choosing Pangasinan as her base. In Sta. Rosa, Laguna, she was involved in the killing of a MAKAPILI, civilians who secretly pointed out guerrillas to the Japanese Imperial Forces.

Rosales played a woman guerrilla in two postwar movies, Guerilyera (1946) and Batalyon XII (1949). In honor of the heroine, a barrio in the town of Rosales in Pangasinan was named Carmen.


  • Title: Mameng
  • Creator: Unknown
  • Date Created: 1948
  • Location Created: Philippines
  • Medium: Photography
  • Depicted Person: Carmen Rosales, Batalyon XIII
  • Depicted Topic: Filipina guerrillas; Filipina actresses

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