Pune is the second largest city in the Indian state of Maharashtra after Mumbai and the seventh most populous city in the country. Situated 560 metres above sea level on the Deccan plateau on the right bank of the Mutha river, Pune is the administrative headquarters of Pune district and was once the centre of power of the Maratha Empire established by Shivaji Maharaj. In the 18th century, Pune was the political centre of the Indian subcontinent, as the seat of the Peshwas who were the prime ministers of the Maratha Empire.
Considered to be the cultural capital of Maharashtra, Pune is known as "Oxford of the East" due to the presence of several well-known educational institutions in the city. The city has emerged as a major educational hub in recent decades, with nearly half of the total international students in the country studying in Pune. Since the 1950s and 1960s, Pune has had a traditional old-economic base as most of the old industries continue to grow.