Middlesbrough is a large town in North Yorkshire, England. It is on the River Tees's southern bank, west of Redcar and east of Stockton-on-Tees. The Borough of Middlesbrough is governed from the town.
Until the early 1800s, the area was rural farming land. By 1830, a new town and port had begun to be developed, driven by the coal industry and later ironworks. Steel production and ship building began in the late 1800s, and remained associated with the town until post-industrial decline occurred in the late twentieth century. Trade, notably through ports, and digital enterprise sectors contemporarily contribute to the local economy. Teesside University is also based in the town.
Erimus, the town's motto, reflects Fuimus of the Norman/Scottish Bruce clan, the mediaeval lords of Cleveland. The town's coat of arms is an azure lion, from the Bruce family arms, a star and two ships representing shipbuilding and maritime trade.
In 1853, the town received its Royal Charter of Incorporation. In 1889, the North Riding of Yorkshire became an administrative county, the town's municipal borough also became a county borough.