Pune, is the second largest city in the state of Maharashtra and the seventh most populous city in India, with an estimated population of 7.4 million as of 2020. It has been ranked as "the most livable city in India" several times. Along with the municipal corporation limits of PCMC and the three cantonment towns of Camp, Khadki and Dehu Road, Pune forms the urban core of the eponymous Pune Metropolitan Region.
According to the 2011 census the urban area had a combined population of 5.05 million whilst the population of the metropolitan region was estimated at 7.4 million. Situated 560 metres above sea level on the Deccan plateau on the right bank of the Mutha river, Pune is also the administrative headquarters of its namesake district.The largest city of Maharashtra, Pune contributes a GDP of $78 billion.
In the 18th century, the city was the seat of the Peshwas, the prime ministers of the Maratha Empire and one of the most important political centres on the Indian subcontinent. The city was also ruled by the Ahmadnagar Sultanate, the Mughals and the Adil Shahi dynasty. Historical landmarks include Lal Mahal, the Kasba Ganapati temple and Shaniwar Wada.