On Easter Monday, 24 April 1916, seven Irishmen proclaimed the establishment of the Irish Republic. They were Éamonn Ceannt, Thomas Clarke, James Connolly, Seán MacDiarmada, Thomas MacDonagh, Patrick Pearse, and Joseph Plunkett.
One stark sentence illustrates the human cost of the Easter Rising. Fearing an outbreak of disease, this handbill was issued by the Administration in Dublin Castle. By Sunday 30 April, close to 2,000 people—mostly civilians—had been killed or injured, the GPO and other buildings were in ruins, and the insurgents had surrendered.
This handbill was fomerly owned by the legendary J.J. Simington who was general manager of The Irish Times in 1916.
Song sheet of ‘Ireland Over All’. Words were written by Éamonn Ceannt, and it was to be sung to the air of 'Deutschland über alles'.
Copies could be obtained by sending 3 pennies in stamps to Éamonn Ceannt at his home in Dolphin's Barn, Dublin. Profits went to the 4th Battalion Irish Volunteers in Kimmage, Dublin.
Draft of a lecture given by Tom Clarke in Dublin on Tuesday, 25 April 1899.
The Freeman's Journal described a "large attendance" at the European Hall in Bolton Street, Dublin, where Tom Clarke was "enthusiastically applauded" as he described what life was like for Irish political prisoners in English prisons.
Kathleen Clarke, 1878-1972, with her sons John, Tom, and Emmet. Kathleen is wearing mourning clothes, and this photograph, taken in 1916, was widely used in fundraising for the families of combatants killed in the Rising, a cause Kathleen Clarke actively supported. She was very politically engaged during her life, and was the first woman Lord Mayor of Dublin.
Order issued by James Connolly, Commandant-General, Dublin Division, Army of the Irish Republic, to Frank Henderson, who was "Officer in Charge, Henry Street" informing him to erect barricades in Henry Street and occupy the first and top floors of houses in the street, 25 April 1916.
"In all cases wait for word from a responsible officer before commencing to shoot."
Lillie Connolly, widow of James Connolly, wrote to Fenian John Devoy on 27 August 1922, to see "if any fund exists in America upon which I would have a claim" as the money she receives from the National Aid Association is not enough to support her and her two young daughters. Lillie describes their flat at 26 Parliament Street as "not fit for human habitation".
Letter from Seán MacDiarmada to Una McCrudden about Sinn Féin, 23 December 1910.
Una McCrudden was a member of the Belfast branch of Cumann na mBan, which was an auxiliary of the Irish Volunteers.
MacDiarmada writes of "a few Dublin people who insist on running Sinn Féin as a little semi-respectable semi-political and three quarter Dublin Corporation Debating Society, and ignoring the Country and the broad national question which it is supposed to be fighting..."
Muriel MacDonagh, née Gifford, pictured on 26 July 1916.
Muriel Gifford MacDonagh, 1884-1917, was involved in women's suffrage and Irish nationalism, but her political activities were limited by ill health from 1912. Muriel died in a drowning accident in July 1917, leaving her children Donagh and Barbara orphans.
Letter from Patrick Pearse to Joseph McGarrity about arms landed at Howth.
Irish-born Joseph McGarrity lived in Philadelphia. He had given $1,000 to the Irish Volunteers and for the purchase of arms that were brought into Howth harbour in July 1914. In this letter, dated 12 August 1914, Pearse admits that the actual number of guns landed at Howth "was only 900", and also outlines the recent split in the Irish Volunteers for McGarrity.
Manuscript draft of 'The Mother', perhaps Patrick Pearse's most famous poem, 1916.
Pearse wrote 'The Mother' early in 1916, at a time when he had come to terms with the probable fate of both himself and his brother Willie. In the event, Patrick Pearse was executed on Wednesday, 3 May 1916. Willie Pearse was executed the next day.
Margaret Pearse (at right), mother of Patrick and Willie Pearse, pictured in 1921.
Margaret Pearse, née Brady, 1857-1932, joined Sinn Féin after the Easter Rising. She was also involved in running Scoil Éanna. Mrs Pearse became a T.D. in 1921 and was a founder member of Fianna Fáil in 1926.
Also in the photograph are, from left, Kathleen Clarke, Countess Markievicz, and Mrs O'Callaghan. All four women were attending a Peace Meeting at the Mansion House in Dublin.
On the spot account of events in the G.P.O., from Joseph Plunkett's field notebook:
Easter Monday 1916
GPO occupied in the
Name of the Republic.
Shortly after noon (about
12.15 pm). Republic
About one hour later
a detachment of enemy
Lancers attempted to
rush O'Connell street.
They were opposed
at the Parnell Statue.
This love letter from Joseph Plunkett to his fiancée Grace Gifford was dated the "6th Day of the Irish Republic. About noon. Somewhere in Moore St."
This page numbered 62, was almost certainly torn from Plunkett's field notebook from the G.P.O. The letter was found on the street by a waiter from the Granville Hotel on Sackville Street.
An accomplished caricaturist, Grace Gifford is pictured here, circa 1906, with the artist Sir William Orpen, who taught her at the Dublin Metropolitan School of Art. She later attended the Slade School of Fine Art in London.
From 1908, Grace became increasingly involved in republican politics, joining Inghinidhe na hÉireann. She contributed to the pro-suffrage Irish Citizen, and produced artwork for the Irish Women's Franchise League.
Joseph Plunkett was Grace Gifford's fiancé. They were allowed to marry in Kilmainham Gaol on the night of Wednesday, 3 May 1916. Plunkett was executed by firing squad the following morning.
Noel Kissane, Sara Smyth, Carol Maddock, National Library of Ireland