Italian editions

Marx 1818-1845
Marx's early writings are notebooks dating back to his University life, as a student at the Faculty of Philosophy in Berlin, where on April 15, 1841 he graduated with a dissertation “Differenz der demokritischen und epikureischen Naturphilosophie” (Difference on the philosophy of nature between Democritus and Epicurus), the first work to be included in the list of his works. In the following year he began his journalistic activity by collaborating with the Rheinische Zeitung: his first article is Observations of a Rhenish citizen on the recent censorship directions in Prussia. Also for the Rheinische Zeitung Marx writes the article Debates on the law on thefts of wood. In 1843 the notes dedicated to the philosophy of the Hegelian state law are written, which will be published in 1927 under the title Kritik des Hegelschen Staatrechts (Criticism of Hegelian philosophy of state law); in 1843 also the two essays collected in the lone issue of "Deutsch-Französische Jahrbücher" ("Franco-German Annals") are published, entitled Die Judenfrage (On the Jewish question) and Zur kritik der Hegelschen Rechtphilosphie (On the criticism of the Hegel's philosophy of right. Introduction). After moving to Paris at the end of 1843, Marx started  economics studies, testified by notebooks, published posthumously in 1932, known as Ökonomisch-philosophische Manuskripte aus dem Jahre 1844 (Economic-Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844 ). In those years the intellectual collaboration with Engels was consolidated, and in 1845 they published their first volume together: Die heilige Familie oder Kritik der h Kritik. Gegen Bruno Bauer und Konsorten (The Holy Family or Criticism of Critical Criticism, against Bruno Bauer and Associates).     “In the year 1842-43, as editor of the Rheinische Zeitung, I first found myself in the embarrassing position of having to discuss what is known as material interests. The deliberations of the Rhenish Landtag on forest thefts and the division of landed property [...] the debates on free trade and protective tariffs caused me in the first instance to turn my attention to economic questions. […]. The general conclusion at which I arrived and which, once reached, became the guiding principle of my studies can be summarised as follows. In the social production of their existence, men inevitably enter Into definite relations, which are independent of their will, namely relations of production appropriate to a given stage in the development of their material forces of production. […]. Frederick Engels, […] arrived by another road (compare his Situation of the working class in England) at the same result as I” (Marx K.,  A critique of political economy, trad. It. Emma Cantimori Mezzamonti, in Marx, Engels, Complete Works Volume XXX, Editori Riuniti, Rome 1986, pages 297-298)
The Holy Family or Criticism of Critical Criticism, against Bruno Bauer and Associates
The work that proves the beginning of the collaboration between Marx and Engels is to be considered a text almost entirely by Marx. The common project was realized in 1844, when the two, on the track of Ludwig Feuerbach, agreed to write a pamphlet to the address of Bruno Bauer, his brother Edgar and other old acquaintances of the Hegelian Left. The initial idea foresaw a text of about forty pages, but a few months after having delivered its twenty pages, Engels discovers that Marx has written over three hundred pages, so as to transform the pamphlet into a real volume. The first publication was in Frankfurt in 1845 by the Literarische Anstalt. The first critical edition is in the Marx-Engels Gesamtausgabe (MEGA), 1927-35.
The German ideology
Written with Engels between the summer of 1845 and the autumn of 1846, Die deutsche Ideologie (the German Ideology) has long been nothing more than a massive set of manuscripts still written in controversy with the Hegelian youngsters, to which this time a criticism addressed to Feuerbach is added, which composes the first manuscript. The subtitle is eloquent: "Criticism of the most recent German philosophy in its representatives Feuerbach, B. Bauer and Stirner and of the German socialism in its various prophets". Known as the text containing the most explicit formulations around the materialistic conception of history, it remained unpublished until 1932, the year of publication in the first MEGA. The first Italian edition of 1947 is edited by Giuliano Pischel for the Italian Editorial Institute. The first complete edition with a translation of the German text of the MEGA dates back to 1958.
Misery of philosophy. Answer to Philosophy of Misery by M. Proudhon
In 1846 the League of the Righteous (since 1847 League of Communists) is looking for a French representative for the Communist correspondence committee. Marx chooses to invite Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, recognizing his stature, despite some divergences in their socialist orientations. These same divergences emerge shortly after Proudhon joins the Committee, when Marx, in response to Système des contradictions économiques or Proudhon's Philosphie de la misère, writes Misère de la philosophie. Réponse à la Philosphie de la misère de M. Proudhon, published in Paris and Brussels in June 1847. The German edition (Stuttgart, 1885) will see involved Kautsky, Bernstein and Engels - who makes some changes to the original text - while in Italy it will be released in 1901 by the publisher Luigi Mongini.
Communist Party Manifesto 
In the Preface to the German edition of 1872, Marx and Engels tell: «The League of Communists, the international association of workers [...] commissioned us, the undersigned, to write for publication a detailed theoretical and practical programme for the Party. Such was the origin of the following Manifesto". The two authors are giving voice to the entire labor movement, providing it with the revolutionary reference document. The first edition, in German, is printed in London and published around 24 February 1848. The two authors announce the translations in English, French, Polish, Russian and Danish. Unnoticed in an early period after the defeats of '48, many new editions appear, that make the Manifesto, always according to Marx and Engels, "a historical document that we no longer feel entitled to change." In Italy, after some editions both incomplete or disapproved by Engels, issued between 1889 and 1892, the Italian translation by Pompeo Bettini in the periodical "Social Criticism", with a preface by Engels, is published in 1893.
Wage and capital work
For the Neue Rheinische Zeitung, his newly founded journal, Marx writes a series of editorials in April 1849, planning a broad discussion, dedicated to the economic relations of the bourgeois society, divided into three chapters. Of these, only the first will see the light on the Neue Rheinische Zeitung, due to its closure the following month. This first work is published again in a book edited by Engels with his introduction in 1884 (for Hottingen-Zurich). A new edition by the same Engels comes out in 1891, revised and modified. The first Italian translation was published in 1893 under the title Capitale e salario, edited by Pasquale Martignetti with an appendix by Filippo Turati. In 1949 Palmiro Togliatti curated a new Italian translation for Rinascita - including the translation of the introduction written by Engels - which came out with the title Work wage and capital (more loyal to the German Lohnarbeit und Kapital), conducted on the Engels edition of 1891 .
The class struggles in France from 1848 to 1850 
After the experience of the "Neue Rheinische Zeitung" concluded in May 1849, Marx publishes for the "Neue Rheinische Zeitung Politisch-ӧkonomische Revue" ("New Rhein Journal: political-economic review", monthly issued from March to November 1850) a series of articles on the current political situation, the first three of which (from 1848 to 1849; June 13, 1849; consequences of June 13, 1849) will be collected by Engels, in 1895, in the text The class struggles in France from 1848 to 1850, with the addition of a fourth article entitled The Suppression of Universal Suffrage in 1850. There is also an article dedicated to the situation in England that has remained unpublished. The Italian edition, published by Editori Riuniti in 1962, after Giorgio Giorgetti. In the collection of the complete Works of Marx and Engels (Editori Riuniti, 1976) there is a translation by Palmiro Togliatti, lead on the edition by Engels in 1895.  
The 18th Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte
Joseph Weydemeyer, member of the League of Communists and founder of the magazine "Die Revolution" in New York, proposes to Marx to write a weekly review on the political situation in France, with the intention of publishing in 1852 the history of the coup by Louis Bonaparte, which took place on December 2, 1851 - the reference to the 18th Brumaire is a comparison with Napoleon's coup d'etat of 1799. The first publication, organized for "Die Revolution", does not happen for the interruption of publications; the magazine closes after two issues due to financial distress, before Marx can deliver his articles. The script appears a little later in the Weydenmeyer magazine files in May 1852, and bears the signature "A Prussian". After some unsuccessful attempts to publish in Europe, Marx takes care of the German edition that comes out in Hamburg in 1869.
For the critique of political economy
When Marx reached London in 1849, he began a period of intense study on the classics of political economy at the library of the British Museum. At the beginning of the 1850s, the Marxian philosophical investigation reached a point that required the deepening of economic relations. This is the origin of the project that over the years will end to the Capital. In June 1859 he publishes For the criticism of political economy for the publisher Franz Duncker, and this is the first argument of a work that Marx wants to divide into several books. The project will remain unfinished, but the working method will be the same from here onwards. Marx explains, in a letter to Lassalle of 1858, that in For the critique of political economy it is "the system of bourgeois economy exposed critically. It is at the same time an exposition of the system and a criticism of the same by the means of exposure".  
Mr. Vogt
Why did an intellectual of Marx's stature interrupt his studies of economics for almost a year to devote all his energy to the resolution of a controversy with Karl Vogt? Why then getting into debt to print it at own expenses in the absence of interested publishers? This is, anyway, what happens between 1859 and 1860: Karl Vogt, Swiss teacher of Natural Sciences of Bonapartist orientation, enters into controversy with the "Allgemeine Zeitung" (of which Marx is a collaborator) to the point of accusing Marx of being a spy at the service of the Prussian government. To counter this, Marx begins to draft an aggressive and sarcastic libel that is recognized, even by his wife Jenny and Engels, as an extraordinary exercise of style. The outburst appears with disproportionate evidence, and the same is the outcome at the editorial level, because Herr Vogt, released on December 1, 1860, does not receive any success. In Italy it will be released in 1910 by the publisher Mongini.
Wage, price and profit
The genesis of Wage, price and profit must be reconstructed starting from a specific date: October 5, 1864, the day when the inaugural session of the Council of the International is held, in which Marx is elected in a committee established to set the provisional statutes. The English socialist John Weston is part of the same committee. A debate concerning wage policies takes place. Not convinced by Weston's thesis, Marx draws up a booklet in response and takes the opportunity to add several considerations of political economy that go beyond the debate. For fear of revealing too many anticipations of the Capital (which will be released a few years later) Marx refuses to publish it. It will be published posthumously by his daughter Eleanor in 1898, in English, with the title Value, price and profit - in the German edition he prefers Lohn (salary) to Value, as well as in the Italian one, published in 1932 for Editions of social culture with the translation by Palmiro Togliatti.
The Capital. Volume I
From Marx's epistolary it was known how his original plan to realize the critique of political economy consisted of 6 books, dedicated respectively to: Capital, Land Revenue, Salaried Work, State, International Trade, World Market. However, the planning of this work has never been completed, so that Das Kapital (the Capital) is to be considered as an unfinished work. The only volume personally edited by Marx is the first book of the Capital, which sees the light in 1867 by the German publisher Meissner. The first Italian translation is in 1896, directed by Gerolamo Boccardo for the UTET Economist Library, and is conducted on the French translation by Roy revised by Marx. Following the German edition of 1932 edited by the Marx-Engels-Lenin Institute is the successful Italian edition of Editori Riuniti, (edited by Delio Cantimori).
The civil war in France
The International Association of Workers entrusts Marx with an account of the political experience that has just been concluded by the Paris Commune. In the text proposed by Marx, in addition to giving an opinion on the events, it arises the problem of the management of power by the proletariat. It was approved two days after the fall of the Communards, on May 30, 1871, and published in London on June 13, 1871. It is presented for the first time as a short pamphlet, preceded by two addresses by the General Council of the International. The fortune of the brochure in the environment of the International makes it possible that the first translations in almost all the European languages come out already in 1872.
The Capital. Volume II 
The books of the Capital following the first one are posthumous works. Book II, as well as Book III, is the result of the revision of Marx's papers by Engels, who works from 1883 (the year of Marx's death) to 1885 on the rearrangement of a messy mass of notes. The discussion deals with the decisive concepts of circulation and capital rotation - in several editions there is the subtitle The process of circulation of Capital. The reference manuscripts date back to the period between 1870 and 1878, a period that counted several stops for Marx's health problems. Aiming at following a chronological editing order by the author, Book II of the Capital would be the last to be written. Following this exhausting revision work, Engels released the second book of Capital in May 1885. The first Italian edition was published in 1908 (publisher L. Mongini).
The Capital. Volume III 
The work of reorganizing the notes started by Engels continues until 1894, the year of publication of Book III of the Capital. It has complications, both due to the difficulty of rearranging the manuscripts by Marx over a period of 20 years, and the intensification of Engels' ophthalmia. If at least a part of the second book had been prepared by Marx for publication, the manuscripts that make up Book III are written between 1864 and 1865 - before Book I - and never reorganized as an organic project. Despite the chronology, Book III of the Capital is a thematic completion of the two previous books, as suggested by the subtitle The overall process of capitalist production. It concludes the path that starting from production, passes through circulation, up to the creation of profit and land rent. «The process of capitalist production, taken as a whole, is the unity of the processes of production and circulation».
Ludwig Feuerbach and the end of classical German philosophy 
In the years following the death of Marx, Engels devoted himself - working meanwhile on the unpublished works by Marx - to the dissemination of the Marxist theory. The short volume Ludwig Feuerbach and the end of classical German philosophy was published in 1886 in the journal "Die Neue Zeit" directed by Karl Kautsky, and later by the publisher J.H.W. Dietz with the addition of the eleven Theses on Feuerbach by Marx, in 1845. The importance, for Engels, of the recovery of this very brief extract by Marx, lies in his aim at clearly marking the definitive step towards the materialistic conception of history as a philosophy of praxis.
Theories of surplus-value 
The difficulty in arranging Marx's manuscripts is also due in part to his almost indecipherable spelling. Educating someone else to understand it, was a necessity for Engels, given the aggravation of his eye disease. Thus he instructs Eduard Bernstein and Karl Kautsky for this task. The latter is the editor of what Marx defines in a letter to Kugelmann the "IV Book of Capital", published posthumously with the title Theories of surplus-value. It is a part of the manuscripts written by Marx between 1861 and 1863, which were followed by For the critique of political economy and prepared the Capital. The edition by Kautsky, dated 1905, contains a series of adjustments aimed at publication in a volume; on this edition is based the Einaudi edition, which appeared in three volumes with the title History of Economic Theories, while a new edition of the manuscripts was published in 1954 by the Marx-Engels Institute in Moscow, in Russian - in 1956 in German.
A testimony of the fortune of Marx's work are the uncountable anthologies, extracts, collections, and reductions of his writings. The complexity, the extension and the dispersion of the Marxian corpus, together with the intent of the socialist and communist parties to spread Marx's thought, explain this widespread diffusion.
Starting from the correspondence with Engels, the letters contain indispensable information to reconstruct the biography of Marx and to understand the genesis of his works.
Collected Works
The first project for an edition in German of the collected works of Marx and Engels (the Marx-Engels-Gesamtausgabe, MEGA) was launched in the Soviet Union in the first half of the nineteen twenties. The project ran into difficulty, but from 1928 to 1947, twenty eight volumes of the Sočinenija (Collected Works) were published, some in more than one part, for a grand total of 33 tomes. From 1956 to 1968, 41 volumes of the Marx-Engels-Werke in 43 tomes were published in the German Democratic Republic, while the USSR saw a second edition of the Sočinenija (1955-1966, in 38 volumes).  A new MEGA project was begun in the GDR in 1975 and interrupted in 1989. It resumed in 1990 under the joint auspices of the International Institute of Social History of Amsterdam and the Karl-Marx-House of Trier. At the beginning of the twentieth century in Italy, the publisher Luigi Mongini began a first systematically based edition of the writings of Marx and Engels, together with works by Lassalle, which was then republished up to the mid-1920s by Edizioni Avanti! An Italian edition of the Works, based on the second MEGA, was published by Editori Riuniti between 1972 and 1990. After 32 of the 50 volumes planned had come out, the project was taken in hand by the Neapolitan publishing house La città del Sole.
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A cura dell'Archivio storico CGIL nazionale e della Fondazione Gramsci,
con il contributo della Fondazione Giangiacomo Feltrinelli e della Fondazione Lelio e Lisli Basso.
Selezione dei volumi a cura di Dario Massimi (Fondazione Gramsci), Vittore Armanni (Fondazione Giangiacomo Feltrinelli) e Maurizio Locusta (Fondazione Lelio e Lisli Basso);
testi di Giordano Nardecchia;
elaborazione grafica delle immagini di Anna Bodini;
coordinamento scientifico: Francesco Giasi e Ilaria Romeo.
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