To talk about the robes worn by Emperor Pedro II for his coronation is, first and foremost, to talk about how clothes epitomize the wearer. This is achieved in various ways—through fabric, through color, and through shape. These elements combined were used, and still are, as a means of differentiating the wearer's status in society. Of all the objects belonging to Dom Pedro II in the Imperial Museum collection, it is his coronation robes with their insignia that most interest and fascinate visitors. More than mere fashion items, these pieces are symbols of power and assertion by a newly independent nation, which was still finding its place in the world and seeking respect from the great traditional kingdoms of 19th century Europe.
Formal dress used by d. Pedro II at his coronation, on july 18 1841 and, subsequently, on the solemn opening and closing of the brazilian parliament.
According to publications of that period, it was called the “knights´ garment” and was made up of the following parts: white jacket made of satin that extended down to the knees; a tie of french lace; maniple; ribbon with a bowknot of the same material as the jacket; breeches of white silk, shoes of white satin, knights´ hat. Over these clothes the imperial symbols: magestic robe made of velvet; cape made from tucan throat feathers, also used by d. Pedro I; imperial crown; imperial sceptre; cruzeiro sword; gloves; decorations, such as the grand-cross of the order of the rose and the imperial order of the cruzeiro. The clothing was inspired by that used by the french court on royal solemnities, as represented by François Hyacinthe Rigaud (1659-1743) in his painting “Portrait of Luis XVI”. D. Pedro II´s formal dress bears a touch of romanticism and is of great distinction and elegance. It causes admiration because of the quality of the cloths used and the perfection of the embroidery, as well as the value of the precious stones and by the richness of the decoration.
Materiais: Toucan feather (ramphastos vitellinus ariel Vigors), Silk satin beige and dark green
Collar in the shape of a short cape, opened to the breast and so could be put on over the head. Made using the “strips” technique where each crop is stiched onto the other in overlapping horizontal rows until reaching the lower border, thus forming segments with a textile base. Linning made of silk, coloured beige, reinforced with dark green silk. Neckline with a hem containing a ribbon, the ends of which serve to attach the collar to the neck.
Material: White velvet embroidered in gold
White velvet hat embroidered with gold thread. Front rim raised, round crown circled by acorns and oak leaves intemingled within a circular space with oak twigs and leaves in the central superior part; band that joins the crown with the rim has gold embroidered oak twigs.
Material: Green Velvet, gold thread and embroidery made of gold, beads (frosted, brilahnte and beaded), sequins, reeds, cord and various gold threads
Made up of four widths of velvet sewn lengthways, with the superior part touching the neck, containing 22 pleats accompanying the central seam. The finish is with a reinforcement of velvet that hides the seam of the linning; sewn to the the velvet with invisible stiches. The outline of the cape is embroidered with oak twigs and acorns and stars containg the initials PII. The hem, embroidered, with rectangles each one, alternatively, containing a star or a crecent moon, both made of sequins. The central part of the robe is covered with gold embroidered elements, forming the following motives: Armillary Sphere, the Bragança dragon and a five points star.
Material: Carved gold and bright
Hollow staff formed by six articulated segments; on the upper side, a garland made up of oak leaves and fruits. A bell-shaped part of the capital ornate with stylized leaves; retangular abacus with divided angles also framed with stylized leaves upon which a serpent with spreaded wings, tail turned upward and open mouth, from which hangs a barbed and movable tongue. Eyes made of diamonds that were added at the time of the coronation of d. Pedro II; the lower part in the shape of leaves, with a carved moulding finished in the shape of a cap.
Imperial Order of the Cruise (band)
Material: Carved gold and enamel
Hanging insignia circled by rosettes on sky-blue cloth, in the shape of a five point white bifurcated star of gold; headed by the imperial crown also of gold. The whole is surrounded by a crown made up of enamelled tobacco and coffe leaves bordered by gold in the centre of the disk. On the obverse of the disk, sky-blue field with the latin cross made up of 19 white stars. Navy blue surround with legend in polished gold: BENEMMERENTIUM PRAEMIUM. On the reverse in a gold field, on the left side the image of d. Pedro I. Navy blue surround with gold legend: PETRUS I BRASILIAE IMPERATOR.
Order of Rose
Material: Carved gold and enamel
Chain of gold consisting of 15 roses foliated in their colour and the same number of small scutcheons of the same metal with the initials PA (interlinked) and placed alternatively. From the collar hangs the insignia corresponding to the class of grand-cross in the shape of a six-pointed star of gold, headed by the imperial crown also of gold. The star is surrounded by a garland made up of 18 small enamelled roses in their colour and in the centre of the disk. On the obverse of the disk, in a gold field the initials pa interwoven; skirting around in dark blue the legend in gold: "amor e fidelidade" (love and faithfulness). On the reverse side, engraved in gold, the date 02/08/1829, set out in the shape of a cross (it refers to the marriage date); surrounding in navy blue the words in gold: Pedro and Amelia.
Material: Gold, silver, brilliants, pearls, velvet and satin
Crown in chiselled yellow and green gold. Wide oval shaped belt, on the lower side, two friezes in the shape of laurel leaves. Between the friezes a string of cultured pearls. On the higher side a garland of 16 points and below this another frieze identical with that of the base. Below each point of the garland a diamond set in silver. In the same direction of the points of the garland, a sprinkle of diamonds and, on the principal axis of the crown, the sprinkle is made up of a larger retangular stone surrounded by smaller stones. Each sprinkle (of diamonds) is surrounded by the same frieze of laurel leaves as that surrounding the belt. On the extremities of the garlands, placed alternatively, triófilos in green gold finished with a knot and within each one a rosette made up of different size diamonds. From each of these arrangements rises a stalk with the following characteristics: polished gold in the shape of shoots and, on the extremity, laurel leaves; in the centre of each shoot, a line of diamonds mounted on silver. On the top side of the crown a globe of polished gold girded by a chiselled edging, set with diamonds, from which rises a semi-circle of a similar shape. A gold chiselled flower ornament supports the sphere. On the top of the circle the Cross of Christ set with diamonds. Original linning of dark green velvet padded with white satin.
Director: Maurício Vicente Ferreira Júnior.
Administrative Coordinator: Isabela Neves de Souza Carreiro
Technical Coordinator: Fernando Ferreira Barbosa
Curation: Maurício Vicente Ferreira Júnior e Muna Raquel Durans.
Museology: Ana Luisa Alonso Camargo, Aline Maller Ribeiro, Evaldo Portela e Maria Helena de A. Esteves da Costa
Library: Claudia Maria Souza da Costa, Márcio Cardoso Miquelino Silva
Photography and Picture Editing: George Milek e Luis Fernando de Oliveira Azevedo.
Proofreading: Rosana Carvalho.