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Characterised by its close-fitting back, the robe à l’anglaise, or English-style dress, was fashionable across Europe in the 1770s and 1780s. This example is made of vibrantly patterned painted cotton, or chintz, imported from India through the port of Amsterdam. Indian cottons were popular because of their fast and bright colours. Their competitive price made them available to a wider market.
Chinese design was immensely admired and sought-after in Europe and this banyan and waistcoat are a unique blend of Chinese textiles and Western tailoring. They are clearly cut, tailored and sewn in a European style.
Banyans and nightgowns were popular informal men's garments worn for leisure at home and among friends. Both banyan and waistcoat have been made out of a silk woven especially for the Chinese Imperial Court. These silks were richly brocaded with dragons on the both the front and back of the robe and featured stylised landscape borders. Silks such as these were not widely available in Europe at this time.
The Italian tailor who made this banyan and waistcoat, adapted them to the wide, flowing style of the Chinese robe, while retaining the usual European front opening instead of the traditional Chinese side opening. The characteristic cuffs on a Chinese dragon robe have been inverted on the banyan sleeves.
Although clothing worn at court was the most formal style of dress, by 1800 it was not the most fashionable. Such rich fabrics and embroidery were no longer worn for everyday wear, but the requirements for court dress provided work for craftspeople in the textile industries. This suit is thought to have belonged to a Scottish nobleman and ancester of the donor. A pair of matching velvet breeches would have completed the ensemble.
In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, plain and decorated hand-woven muslins imported into Britain from Bengal by the East India Company were highly fashionable, and were imitated by British manufacturers in Ayreshire and Lancashire. The needle-worked 'lace' fillings and embroidery of this exceptionally fine dress were probably worked in Ayreshire.
In the mid-19th century, the European fashionable silhouette reached extreme proportions. Corsets provided support and enhanced small waists, emphasising the extraordinary size of crinoline skirts. By the mid-1850s, ever widening skirts meant the weight of multiple petticoats had become very uncomfortable. The 'artificial', or 'cage' crinoline appeared in 1857 as a welcome and more practical alternative. It was made of spring steel hoops, increasing in diameter towards the bottom and connected with tapes. This dress would have been worn with a crinoline underneath.
The V&A owns an extensive wardrobe of clothing and accessories worn between 1905 and 1925 by London socialite Heather Firbank who, according to her brother's biographer M.J. Benkovitz, "had beauty and adorned it with exquisite clothes of a heather colour to complement her name". Heather Firbank bought from many London dressmakers, particularly Lucile, the creator of this delicate gown.
In the first half of the 20th century most women in Japan continued to wear kimono. Although the cut remained the same, the designs on fashionable garments bore an unmistakable modern flavour as motifs were dramatically enlarged or distorted. Many kimono were made from meisen, a thick silk fabric that was both long-lasting and relatively inexpensive. Patterned with chemical dyes applied through stencils on to the threads before weaving, meisen became the favoured fabric of stylish, urban woman. This kimono, with its dynamic design of flying fish, is a striking example, the use of silver and lacquer threads adding an air of luxury to what is essentially an informal garment.
Charles James made this remarkable, sculptural jacket for Mrs Oliver Burr-Jennings in 1937. In 1975, James wrote a full description of the jacket's development:
"The stitching which held the shaped masses of eiderdown in place, being treated as scrolls or, as in the case of my coat as tapered arabesques, one within another. The stitching however had to be worked out with the cut... This is done while the pattern lies in pieces after it has been first planned.... The great problem in the development of this concept was that it concerned the expansion of the silhouette by inflation with eiderdown which in some areas would be three inches thick at least." The thickness of the jacket padding is reduced around the neckline and armholes to enable unimpeded movement. The sleeves are cut as one with the front panels and have underarm gussets.
This dress was a specially commissioned from Christian Dior by Gloria Guinness, voted the world's second 'Best Dressed Woman' by Time magazine in 1962. It is a variation of Belle de Nuit, a dress in Dior's 1954 Spring/Summer collection. The original design featured straps, a fuller skirt and a plain silk stole rather than a bolero.
This dress was commissioned by Queen Elizabeth II from London couturier Norman Hartnell for her state visit to Paris in April 1957. The visit followed the Treaty of Rome, which created the European Economic Community (EEC). Showcasing beautiful couture embroidery techniques, the dress is embroidered with pearls, beads, brilliants and gold thread. The design makes diplomatic reference to French motifs, including daisies, crossed wheat sheaves and Napoleonic bees.
After training in fine art at Goldsmith's College in London, Mary Quant opened her boutique Bazaar on London's King's Road in 1955. Quant promoted stylish yet affordable ready-to-wear fashions like this day dress with beribboned collar and cuffs. Its simple material and construction are typical of Quant's youthful designs.
This beautifully embroidery with flowers and three dimensional appliquéd daisies adorns a classic shift dress. The dress was commissioned by Jillian Ritblat from the Paris couturier Jacques Heim for her engagement party in London. Jillian Ritblat said of wearing the dress, "It was a big party at my parent’s home and I was marrying a Frenchman, so that was excitement in Hampstead! Couture sums up a kind of vision of extraordinary glamour and luxury with extraordinary people in an elevated world".
By the 1970s, this simple, modernist style had fallen out of fashion.
After training in textile design at London's Royal College of Art, in 1969 Zandra Rhodes created a set of textiles like the printed chiffon from which this kaftan was made, whose motifs were taken from knitting and embroidery stitches, called Knitted Circle. She then learnt how to cut patterns in order to produce her own clothes, basing the shape of the clothes on the textile print. Rhodes said, “I made swirling, dramatic shapes with no concessions to the saleable, the acceptable or the ordinary. The true Rhodes style came into being”.
The supermodel Naomi Campbell will be forever associated with the blue mock-croc Vivienne Westwood platforms that were responsible for her spectacular fall on a Paris catwalk. Westwood’s reinterpretation of the platform heel was exaggeratedly proportioned. It required a courageous wearer who was not afraid of heights.
The cult of the cute (kawaii) took off in Japan during the 1970s. Initially a fad among young girls, it now crosses the generations and, to a certain extent, the sexes. It has influenced street style, especially the hyper-feminine ‘Lolita’ look and its copious use of ruffles, frills and elaborate accessories. This outfit by the cult brand Baby, the Stars Shine Bright is an example of the so-called Sweet Lolita (amarori) style. The pinafore dress is designed to be worn with bloomers, double petticoats and a lace-trimmed, puffed-sleeve blouse. The tea party print, clock and playing card motifs are all references to Alice in Wonderland, as is the style of the dress.
This track suit is part of a group of early 2010s ensembles donated to the V&A by Charlie Porter, an influential British fashion journalist known for his understanding of contemporary menswear. From a distance, the textile may look like a traditional toile de Jouy print, but it depicts scenes from the London riots of 2011. Charlie Porter said, "I loved this look. It is the sort of piece where you think, 'Should I be wearing these in public? And then immediately think, I don't care.'"
It is challenging to take forward a fashion label decoupled from its founder. Since 2008, when Valentino Garavani retired, head designers Maria Grazia Chiuri (who moved to the house of Dior in 2017) and Pier Paolo Piccioli extended the firm’s emphasis on couture. Their collections celebrated traditional techniques combined with the occasional startling element, such as the flora and fauna depicted within the medallions of this evening dress. The dress was part of Valentino's Autumn/Winter 2013-14 haute couture collection, titled 'Wunderkammer' or cabinet of curiosities, and suggests a wonder and fascination with the natural world.