Karabakh Carpets

Karabakh, one of the ancient historical regions of Azerbaijan, is considered as the pearl of these lands and has become a famous carpet-weaving center worldwide.

By Virtual Karabakh - Information - Communication Technology Centre

"Jejim" Carpet (Early XX century)Virtual Karabakh - Information - Communication Technology Centre

There are 33 compositions of Karabakh carpets. According to the traits of local sheep wool Karabakh carpets have long tight and mild pile. Karabakh carpets are distinguished for their colorfulness and bright colours. They are divided into 4 groups: with medallion, without medallion, carpets for Namaz, and with a plot. These carpets are produced in the towns Malibeyli, Muradkhanli, Dashbulag, Jabrayil, Horadiz in Karabakh in mountainous part of Karabakh.

"Zilli" Carpet (XIX century)Virtual Karabakh - Information - Communication Technology Centre

Zilli carpet is characterized by stylized forms of animals and vegetal elements. In terms of their composition and pattern the Azerbaijani zillis are very diverse.

They feature the images of large elements in the shape of big lozenges, paired horns, various stylized elements.

"Verni" Carpet (Late XIX - early XX century)Virtual Karabakh - Information - Communication Technology Centre

The composition of the carpet consists of a central field and a border strip. The central field of the carpet has been decorated with «S»-shaped elements and consists of two parts.

Mainly white, yellow, navy-blue, orange, light red, green and brown colors have been used.

“Bulud” Carpet (Early XX century)Virtual Karabakh - Information - Communication Technology Centre

In the 18th century along with the patterned carpets in Susa, new carpet compositions – Bagcadagullar, Saxsidagullar, Bulud and other patterns were woven copying designs of salvers, fragrant soaps, chintz and other wide-ranging home things imported from Russia and Europe.

Karabakh carpet-weaving schoolVirtual Karabakh - Information - Communication Technology Centre

In XVIII century Karabakh carpet-weaving school was assembled in Shusha. In XVIII century along with classical flavored carpets, new carpet compositions with ornaments taken from household goods such as "Baghçadagullər", "Saxsıdagullər", and "Bulud”.

Color palette of Karabakh carpets is so affluent. This palette comprises all undertones of nature of Karabakh. Historically, interim part of Azerbaijan carpets is dyed in red. Besides various plants, these colors are gained from different kind of insects. The most popular insect from which red color is produced is scale insect. This insect is called “insect of red”, “red worm”, "insect of oak”.

"Shadda" Carpet (30th years of 20th c.)Virtual Karabakh - Information - Communication Technology Centre

Piled carpets require especially sophisticated techniques. Here one should master an entirely different technique, with a pile knot applied to every two warp threads, making it possible to bring out a host of designs of any shape or size.
Pileless ones include palas, kilim, sumakh, zili, shadde, and verni. Palas and kilim are simply woven, while sumakh, zili, shadde, and verni have an intricate weave.

Carpet “Buynuz” (Horn)Virtual Karabakh - Information - Communication Technology Centre

Buynuz carpets belong to the type of Karabakh carpets. They are produced in carpet-weaving points in Karabakh. Before Karabakh carpet masters called “Buynuz” carpets as “Horadiz”. In central Asia and Middle East also in Azerbaijan some animals such as sheep, ox, and goat were considered holy.

"Buynuz" Carpet (Late XIX century)Virtual Karabakh - Information - Communication Technology Centre

Bull is a symbol of power and courage, as well as symbolizing “space forces”, the God of water, and farming. In the middle composition of the carpet consists of horn drawings. The middle part of these carpets creates horizontal raw by accepted rules, which consists of similar elements and ornaments.

In one hand asymmetric structure of horns makes carpet more vivid, on the other hand creates opportunuty to weave carpet how you want. Details in different forms comprising basic element of carpet are sorrounding “Buynuz” has function such as filling.

“Balig” Carpet (Early XX century)Virtual Karabakh - Information - Communication Technology Centre

This carpet is one of the most prevalent kinds of Karabakh carpets. In the north of the country it is known as "Balig”, in Iran-Azerbaijan as “Mokhi”. Although this carpet is produced in all carpet-weaving factories, the main production center was considered Berde.

Carpet “Balig” (Fish)Virtual Karabakh - Information - Communication Technology Centre

Since second part of XVIII century carpet “Balig” was produced in Shusha. From second half of XIX century 35% of carpets produced here were from this type. Famous “Erag”, “Bichag”, “Mustofi” and other carpets were weaved based on the description of “Balig”. Composition of Balig has the same principle, its spiralles are arranged in short distance. This arrangement recalls painting of Balig (fish) for that reason artists named it conditionally as “Balig”.

Carpet “Karabakh”Virtual Karabakh - Information - Communication Technology Centre

Carpets known as a Karabakh were and are currently produced in all carpet-weaving factories of Azerbaijan. Depending on the production place carpets are named differently, but masters call these carpets “Karabakh”. In XIX century in Shusha, carpets called “Khan” or “Khan Karabakh” having these composition were produced for export to Istanbul markets, with the same composition carpets weaved in Guba were called “Africa”.

Carpets with the name “Karabakh” have several types:

1. Consisting of several medallions composition of middle part reminds naxisli curtains of Iran and India cloths. You can come across medallians on the cover of Kuran written by Tabriz artists in XV-XVII centuries and on the cover of literary books. Titles on the upper and down part of medallion fill in the gaps.

2. Karabakh carpets have also one kind called “Chini-cheshni” by carpet-weavers. The composition of carpets consists of 8 angled medallions in one row.

Flat-woven carpetsVirtual Karabakh - Information - Communication Technology Centre

Flat-woven carpets differ from each other through their weaving techniques, compositional structure, ornamentation, and color schemes.

Palas and jejim, the compositions of which characterized by colored stripes of different widths, are woven with the simple interweaving technique. Kilim, decorated with a variety of geometric patterns, consisting of four- and six-pointed shapes, with medallion “kilimgulu” and so on, is woven with complex interweaving techniques.

Flat-woven carpets like varni, shadda, zili, and sumakh are woven by wrapping of third weft around warp, which gives the ability to create complex patterns: stylized dragon in the shape of letter S or Z, anthropomorphic and zoomorphic motifs, plant ornaments, composition “Khatai”, etc.

Carpet ”Shabalid buta” (Mid XIX century)Virtual Karabakh - Information - Communication Technology Centre

The composition of the carpet consists of a central field and a border. The carpet has been decorated with butas and floral elements.

The border surrounding the carpet consists of three ornament lines.

"Malibeyli” Carpet (Mid. XIX century)Virtual Karabakh - Information - Communication Technology Centre

Malibeyli carpets belong to Shusha group of Karabakh carpets, it took its name from the village Malibeyli situated in 15 kilometers from north part of Shusha. Male dwellers of this village were engaged in stock-raising, husbandry, female settlers in carpet-weaving. Their carpets were famous all over Karabakh.

"Kilim" Carpet (Mid. XX century)Virtual Karabakh - Information - Communication Technology Centre

Kilim is the most widespread type of flat-woven carpets. They are made by passing the weft through the warp using the technique of compound interweaving. Kilim is characterized by a slot-like gap (opening) around the geometrical patterns. These openings impart a lace effect the kilim.

The technique of kilim weaving predetermines the pattern shapes in the form of a lozenge, triangle, trapezium. Nearly all the vegetal elements, images of animals, birds and humans are geometrized in kilims. Kilims of different regions are distinguished by their composition, pattern, and colors.

“Achma-yumma” Carpet (Late XIX century)Virtual Karabakh - Information - Communication Technology Centre

The composition of the carpet consists of five geometrical lakes on the dark brown background. The border surrounding the carpet is consist of seven parts. Mainly red, yellow, brown and blue colours have been used.

“Bahmanli” Carpet (Early XX century)Virtual Karabakh - Information - Communication Technology Centre

Geometrical ornaments have been depicted on the red field. The border surrounding the carpet is consist of four parts.

Mainly red, blue and black colours have been used.

Credits: Story

Nuraddin Mehdiyev
Chairman, Virtual Karabakh Information Communication Technologies Centre, Youth Public Union
nuraddin_ mehdiyev@yahoo.com
Mob : +99450 370 55 10

Sadaget Najafzade
Coordinator, Virtual Karabakh Information Communication Technologies Centre, Youth Public Union
snnacafzade@gmail.com
Mob: +99455 929 10 20

Nail Shukurov
Assistant Chairman, Virtual Karabakh Information Communication Technologies Centre, Youth Public Union
nailshukurov91@gmail.com
Mob : +99450 386 88 76

Credits: All media
The story featured may in some cases have been created by an independent third party and may not always represent the views of the institutions, listed below, who have supplied the content.
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