The term 'censorship' has several meanings.
In current regimes which defend 'freedom of expression' as a fundamental principle and right, has censorship ceased to exist?
Mural by Bansky (2011) by Bansky (Unknown)Faculty of Arts and Humanities of University of Porto
It is essential to contextualize what is 'freedom' and 'freedom of expression' to understand 'censorship'.
Indeed, as this photo shows, street art discusses the limits of these principles.
Series of The Declaration of Human Rights (1984) by Otavio RothFaculty of Arts and Humanities of University of Porto
Otávio Roth portrayed the articles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948).
The Declaration postulates that freedom is a supreme and universal value intimately connected with the principle of the dignity of the human person.
J. Afonso da Silva (Direito Constitucional Positivo, 2016) synthesizes 'freedom' as the possibility of conscious coordination of the resources necessary to achieve personal happiness, framing objective and subjective elements that allow working this principle in society.
'Freedom of expression' seeks to guarantee the right to adopt or refuse a doctrine, philosophy, or political party.
It is also the right to have the possibility of producing and disseminating art, without being censored. A constitutional right guaranteed in some countries.
Fear is power (2021) by Muzammil (Unknown)Faculty of Arts and Humanities of University of Porto
There is little literature about 'contemporary censorship(s)' and its most recurrent definition goes back to institutionalized censorship.
This exhibition will show that nowadays 'censorship(s)' seek to silence and interdict artworks and/or exhibitions. These acts involve complex and broad contexts, and can be promoted by different agents (citizens, social networks, or large companies).
During the COVID-19 pandemic, artistic productions are being censored mainly through the Internet.
Even artists in democratic countries are being killed because of their artworks.
In the last 2 years, at least 153 artists were arrested for their artwork around the world.
In the last 4 years, 1 artist was killed in Brazil as a response to his work...
Where are their fundamental rights?
CURATORSHIP: Mariana Eça Negreiros under the supervision of Hugo Barreira and Diana Felícia.
TEXTS: Mariana Eça Negreiros with scientific review by Hugo Barreira, Inês de Carvalho Costa and Maria Leonor Botelho.
PRODUCTION: This work results from a project by Mariana Eça Negreiros for the master's Degree in Art History, Heritage and Visual Culture at the Faculty of Arts and Humanities of the University of Porto, developed at CITCEM/FLUP during 2020/2021 and approved by the scientific committee in office.
PROJECT REPORT: https://repositorio-aberto.up.pt/handle/10216/139719
TRANSLATION REVIEW: Isabel Silva (« Financed by FCT - National Foundation for Science and Technology, under the project UIDB/04059/2020»).