Marx 1818-1845Archivio storico CGIL nazionale
Marx's early writings are notebooks dating back to his University life, as a student at the Faculty of Philosophy in Berlin, where on April 15, 1841 he graduated with a dissertation “Differenz der demokritischen und epikureischen Naturphilosophie” (Difference on the philosophy of nature between Democritus and Epicurus), the first work to be included in the list of his works.
In the following year he began his journalistic activity by collaborating with the Rheinische Zeitung: his first article is Observations of a Rhenish citizen on the recent censorship directions in Prussia. Also for the Rheinische Zeitung Marx writes the article Debates on the law on thefts of wood. In 1843 the notes dedicated to the philosophy of the Hegelian state law are written, which will be published in 1927 under the title Kritik des Hegelschen Staatrechts (Criticism of Hegelian philosophy of state law); in 1843 also the two essays collected in the lone issue of "Deutsch-Französische Jahrbücher" ("Franco-German Annals") are published, entitled Die Judenfrage (On the Jewish question) and Zur kritik der Hegelschen Rechtphilosphie (On the criticism of the Hegel's philosophy of right. Introduction).
After moving to Paris at the end of 1843, Marx started economics studies, testified by notebooks, published posthumously in 1932, known as Ökonomisch-philosophische Manuskripte aus dem Jahre 1844 (Economic-Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844 ). In those years the intellectual collaboration with Engels was consolidated, and in 1845 they published their first volume together: Die heilige Familie oder Kritik der h Kritik. Gegen Bruno Bauer und Konsorten (The Holy Family or Criticism of Critical Criticism, against Bruno Bauer and Associates).
“In the year 1842-43, as editor of the Rheinische Zeitung, I first found myself in the embarrassing position of having to discuss what is known as material interests. The deliberations of the Rhenish Landtag on forest thefts and the division of landed property [...] the debates on free trade and protective tariffs caused me in the first instance to turn my attention to economic questions. […].
The general conclusion at which I arrived and which, once reached, became the guiding principle of my studies can be summarised as follows. In the social production of their existence, men inevitably enter Into definite relations, which are independent of their will, namely relations of production appropriate to a given stage in the development of their material forces of production. […]. Frederick Engels, […] arrived by another road (compare his Situation of the working class in England) at the same result as I”
(Marx K., A critique of political economy, trad. It. Emma Cantimori Mezzamonti, in Marx, Engels, Complete Works Volume XXX, Editori Riuniti, Rome 1986, pages 297-298)
The Holy Family or Criticism of Critical Criticism, against Bruno Bauer and AssociatesArchivio storico CGIL nazionale
The Holy Family
or Criticism of Critical Criticism, against Bruno Bauer and Associates
The work that proves the beginning of the collaboration between Marx and Engels is to be considered a text almost entirely by Marx. The common project was realized in 1844, when the two, on the track of Ludwig Feuerbach, agreed to write a pamphlet to the address of Bruno Bauer, his brother Edgar and other old acquaintances of the Hegelian Left.
The initial idea foresaw a text of about forty pages, but a few months after having delivered its twenty pages, Engels discovers that Marx has written over three hundred pages, so as to transform the pamphlet into a real volume. The first publication was in Frankfurt in 1845 by the Literarische Anstalt. The first critical edition is in the Marx-Engels Gesamtausgabe (MEGA), 1927-35.
Real humanism has no more dangerous enemy in Germany than spiritualism or speculative idealism, which substitutes "self-consciousness" or the ''spirit" for the real individual man and with the evangelist teaches: "It is the spirit that quickeneth; the flesh profiteth nothing".Archivio storico CGIL nazionale
The edition published by the Publishing Company Avanti! Based in Milan in 1925, on the first translation by Enrico Leone and the editions of 1967 and 1986 by Editori RiunitiArchivio storico CGIL nazionale
The German ideologyArchivio storico CGIL nazionale
The German ideology
Written with Engels between the summer of 1845 and the autumn of 1846, Die deutsche Ideologie (the German Ideology) has long been nothing more than a massive set of manuscripts still written in controversy with the Hegelian youngsters, to which this time a criticism addressed to Feuerbach is added, which composes the first manuscript.
The subtitle is eloquent
"Criticism of the most recent German philosophy in its representatives Feuerbach, B. Bauer and Stirner and of the German socialism in its various prophets". Known as the text containing the most explicit formulations around the materialistic conception of history, it remained unpublished until 1932, the year of publication in the first MEGA. The first Italian edition of 1947 is edited by Giuliano Pischel for the Italian Editorial Institute. The first complete edition with a translation of the German text of the MEGA dates back to 1958.
Men can be distinguished from animals by consciousness, by religion or anything else you like. They themselves begin to distinguish themselves from animals as soon as they begin to produce their means of subsistence, a step which is conditioned by their physical organisation. By producing their means of subsistence men are indirectly producing their actual material life.Archivio storico CGIL nazionale
1947 edition by the Italian Editorial Institute in Milan, and two editions published by Editori Riuniti in 1958 and 1971Archivio storico CGIL nazionale
Misery of philosophy. Answer to Philosophy of Misery by M. ProudhonArchivio storico CGIL nazionale
Misery of philosophy.
Answer to Philosophy of Misery by M. Proudhon
In 1846 the League of the Righteous (since 1847 League of Communists) is looking for a French representative for the Communist correspondence committee. Marx chooses to invite Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, recognizing his stature, despite some divergences in their socialist orientations.
These same divergences emerge shortly after Proudhon joins the Committee, when Marx, in response to Système des contradictions économiques or Proudhon's Philosphie de la misère, writes Misère de la philosophie. Réponse à la Philosphie de la misère de M. Proudhon, published in Paris and Brussels in June 1847. The German edition (Stuttgart, 1885) will see involved Kautsky, Bernstein and Engels - who makes some changes to the original text - while in Italy it will be released in 1901 by the publisher Luigi Mongini.
The economic forms in which men produce, consume, exchange, are historical and transitory. In acquiring new productive forces men change their mode of production; and in changing their mode of production, in changing the way of earning their living, they change all their social relations.Archivio storico CGIL nazionale
The 1922 edition by Avanti! Publishing Company of Milan and that by Edizioni Rinascita of 1949Archivio storico CGIL nazionale
Communist Party ManifestoArchivio storico CGIL nazionale
Communist Party Manifesto
In the Preface to the German edition of 1872, Marx and Engels tell: «The League of Communists, the international association of workers [...] commissioned us, the undersigned, to write for publication a detailed theoretical and practical programme for the Party. Such was the origin of the following Manifesto".
The two authors announce the translations in English, French, Polish, Russian and Danish. Unnoticed in an early period after the defeats of '48, many new editions appear, that make the Manifesto, always according to Marx and Engels, "a historical document that we no longer feel entitled to change." In Italy, after some editions both incomplete or disapproved by Engels, issued between 1889 and 1892, the Italian translation by Pompeo Bettini in the periodical "Social Criticism", with a preface by Engels, is published in 1893.
Unnoticed in an early period after the defeats of '48, many new editions appear, that make the Manifesto, always according to Marx and Engels, "a historical document that we no longer feel entitled to change." In Italy, after some editions both incomplete or disapproved by Engels, issued between 1889 and 1892, the Italian translation by Pompeo Bettini in the periodical "Social Criticism", with a preface by Engels, is published in 1893.
Now and then the workers are victorious, but only for a time. The real fruit of their battles lies, not in the immediate result, but in the ever expanding union of the workers. This union is helped on by the improved means of communication that are created by modern industry, and that place the workers of different localities in contact with one another. It was just this contact that was needed to centralise the numerous local struggles, all of the same character, into one national struggle between classes. But every class struggle is a political struggle.Archivio storico CGIL nazionale
The first translations published in Milan by the Offices of the Social Critic in 1893 and in Florence by Nerbini in 1901Archivio storico CGIL nazionale
The translations published by the Publishing Company Avanti! in 1918, from the Publishing Library of the Communist Party in 1925, from the Pcd'I in France in 1933 and the editions of 1944 published in Rome by the CosmopolitaArchivio storico CGIL nazionale
The editions of 1944 published by Bandiera Rossa organization, in Mantua by Terra Nostra; the editions of 1945 published in Milan by Ambrosiana and in Rome by the Italian Socialist PartyArchivio storico CGIL nazionale
The editions published in Rome in 1945 by the Publishing Company L'Unità, in 1947 by Edizioni Rinascita, in 1962 by Einaudi, and in 1973 by MursiaArchivio storico CGIL nazionale
The editions published by Laterza in 1975 in 1983 by Editori Riuniti and in 1998 by RizzoliArchivio storico CGIL nazionale
Wage and capital workArchivio storico CGIL nazionale
Wage and capital work
For the Neue Rheinische Zeitung, his newly founded journal, Marx writes a series of editorials in April 1849, planning a broad discussion, dedicated to the economic relations of the bourgeois society, divided into three chapters. Of these, only the first will see the light on the Neue Rheinische Zeitung, due to its closure the following month.
This first work is published again in a book edited by Engels with his introduction in 1884 (for Hottingen-Zurich). A new edition by the same Engels comes out in 1891, revised and modified. The first Italian translation was published in 1893 under the title Capitale e salario, edited by Pasquale Martignetti with an appendix by Filippo Turati. In 1949 Palmiro Togliatti curated a new Italian translation for Rinascita - including the translation of the introduction written by Engels - which came out with the title Work wage and capital (more loyal to the German Lohnarbeit und Kapital), conducted on the Engels edition of 1891 .
Labor-power, then, is a commodity, no more, no less so than is the sugar. The first is measured by the clock, the other by the scales.Archivio storico CGIL nazionale
The translation published in Brussels in 1932 by the editions of social culture and the one published in Rome by the Publishing Company L'Unità in 1945Archivio storico CGIL nazionale
The Italians translations published in Rome by Editori Riuniti in 1957 and by Savelli in 1976Archivio storico CGIL nazionale
The class struggles in France from 1848 to 1850Archivio storico CGIL nazionale
The class struggles in France from 1848 to 1850
After the experience of the "Neue Rheinische Zeitung" concluded in May 1849, Marx publishes for the "Neue Rheinische Zeitung Politisch-ӧkonomische Revue" ("New Rhein Journal: political-economic review", monthly issued from March to November 1850) a series of articles on the current political situation, the first three of which (from 1848 to 1849; June 13, 1849; consequences of June 13, 1849) will be collected by Engels, in 1895, in the text The class struggles in France from 1848 to 1850, with the addition of a fourth article entitled The Suppression of Universal Suffrage in 1850.
In seguito, Marx pubblica per la “Neue Rheinische Zeitung. Politisch-ӧkonomische Revue” (“Nuova Gazzetta Renana. Rivista politico-economica”, mensile che esce dal marzo al novembre del 1850) una serie di articoli sulla situazione politica corrente, i primi tre dei quali (Dal 1848 al 1849; Il 13 giugno 1849; Ripercussioni del 13 giugno sul continente) saranno raccolti da Engels, nel 1895, nel testo Le lotte di classe in Francia dal 1848 al 1850, con l’aggiunta di un quarto articolo intitolato La soppressione del suffragio universale nel 1850.
There is also an article dedicated to the situation in England that has remained unpublished. The Italian edition, published by Editori Riuniti in 1962, after Giorgio Giorgetti. In the collection of the complete Works of Marx and Engels (Editori Riuniti, 1976) there is a translation by Palmiro Togliatti, lead on the edition by Engels in 1895.
Revolutionary progress did not make its way through its tragicomic immediate achievements, but, on the contrary, giving rise to a tight, powerful counter-revolution, giving rise to an adversary, and only fighting it, the party of the insurrection reached the maturity of a true revolutionary party.Archivio storico CGIL nazionale
The first Italian translation published in Milan by the Offices of the Social Critic in 1896 and the edition published in Rome by Luigi Mongini in 1902Archivio storico CGIL nazionale
The edition edited by Mario Alighiero Manacorda for Einaudi in 1948, and that by Editori Riuniti of 1962Archivio storico CGIL nazionale
The 18th Brumaire of Louis BonaparteArchivio storico CGIL nazionale
The 18th Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte
Joseph Weydemeyer, member of the League of Communists and founder of the magazine "Die Revolution" in New York, proposes to Marx to write a weekly review on the political situation in France, with the intention of publishing in 1852 the history of the coup by Louis Bonaparte, which took place on December 2, 1851 - the reference to the 18th Brumaire is a comparison with Napoleon's coup d'etat of 1799.
The first publication, organized for "Die Revolution", does not happen for the interruption of publications; the magazine closes after two issues due to financial distress, before Marx can deliver his articles. The script appears a little later in the Weydenmeyer magazine files in May 1852, and bears the signature "A Prussian". After some unsuccessful attempts to publish in Europe, Marx takes care of the German edition that comes out in Hamburg in 1869.
A whole nation, which thought it had acquired an accelerated power of motion by means of a revolution, suddenly finds itself set back into a defunct epoch, and to remove any doubt about the relapse, the old dates arise again – the old chronology, the old names, the old edicts, which had long since become a subject of antiquarian scholarship, and the old minions of the law who had seemed long dead.Archivio storico CGIL nazionale
The editions published in Rome by De Luigi in 1944, by Edizioni Rinascita in 1947 and by Editori Riuniti in 1977Archivio storico CGIL nazionale
For the critique of political economyArchivio storico CGIL nazionale
For the critique of political economy
When Marx reached London in 1849, he began a period of intense study on the classics of political economy at the library of the British Museum. At the beginning of the 1850s, the Marxian philosophical investigation reached a point that required the deepening of economic relations. This is the origin of the project that over the years will end to the Capital. I
In June 1859 he publishes For the criticism of political economy for the publisher Franz Duncker, and this is the first argument of a work that Marx wants to divide into several books. The project will remain unfinished, but the working method will be the same from here onwards. Marx explains, in a letter to Lassalle of 1858, that in For the critique of political economy it is "the system of bourgeois economy exposed critically. It is at the same time an exposition of the system and a criticism of the same by the means of exposure".
The study of this, which I began in Paris, I continued in Brussels, where I moved owing to an expulsion order issued by M. Guizot. The general conclusion at which I arrived and which, once reached, became the guiding principle of my studies can be summarised as follows. In the social production of their existence, men inevitably enter into definite relations, which are independent of their will, namely relations of production appropriate to a given stage in the development of their material forces of production. The totality of these relations of production constitutes the economic structure of society, the real foundation, on which arises a legal and political superstructure and to which correspond definite forms of social consciousness. The mode of production of material life conditions the general process of social, political and intellectual life.Archivio storico CGIL nazionale
The Italian translations published in Rome by Luigi Mongini in 1899, by the Avanti! Publishing company in 1925 and by Editori Riuniti in 1993Archivio storico CGIL nazionale
Mr. VogtArchivio storico CGIL nazionale
Why did an intellectual of Marx's stature interrupt his studies of economics for almost a year to devote all his energy to the resolution of a controversy with Karl Vogt? Why then getting into debt to print it at own expenses in the absence of interested publishers?
This is, anyway, what happens between 1859 and 1860: Karl Vogt, Swiss teacher of Natural Sciences of Bonapartist orientation, enters into controversy with the "Allgemeine Zeitung" (of which Marx is a collaborator) to the point of accusing Marx of being a spy at the service of the Prussian government.
To counter this, Marx begins to draft an aggressive and sarcastic libel that is recognized, even by his wife Jenny and Engels, as an extraordinary exercise of style. The outburst appears with disproportionate evidence, and the same is the outcome at the editorial level, because Herr Vogt, released on December 1, 1860, does not receive any success. In Italy it will be released in 1910 by the publisher Mongini.
Comparing the history of governments and bourgeois society, say from 1849 to 1859, and the history of political migration in that same period, would be the most remarkable apology that could be written about it.Archivio storico CGIL nazionale
The translation published in Rome by Luigi Mongini in 1910 and in anastatic reprint by Samonà and Savelli in 1970Archivio storico CGIL nazionale
Wage, price and profitArchivio storico CGIL nazionale
Wage, price and profit
The genesis of Wage, price and profit must be reconstructed starting from a specific date: October 5, 1864, the day when the inaugural session of the Council of the International is held, in which Marx is elected in a committee established to set the provisional statutes. The English socialist John Weston is part of the same committee.
A debate concerning wage policies takes place. Not convinced by Weston's thesis, Marx draws up a booklet in response and takes the opportunity to add several considerations of political economy that go beyond the debate. For fear of revealing too many anticipations of the Capital (which will be released a few years later) Marx refuses to publish it.
It will be published posthumously by his daughter Eleanor in 1898, in English, with the title Value, price and profit - in the German edition he prefers Lohn (salary) to Value, as well as in the Italian one, published in 1932 for Editions of social culture with the translation by Palmiro Togliatti.
Supply and demand regulate nothing but the temporary fluctuations of market prices. They will explain to you why the market price of a commodity rises above or sinks below its value, but they can never account for the value itself.Archivio storico CGIL nazionale
The edition published in Brussels by the Editions of social culture in 1932 and by Edizioni Rinascita in 1955Archivio storico CGIL nazionale
The edition of the Newton Compton of Rome in 1971 and that of the Editori Riuniti of 1971Archivio storico CGIL nazionale
The Capital. Volume IArchivio storico CGIL nazionale
The Capital. Volume I
From Marx's epistolary it was known how his original plan to realize the critique of political economy consisted of 6 books, dedicated respectively to: Capital, Land Revenue, Salaried Work, State, International Trade, World Market. However, the planning of this work has never been completed, so that Das Kapital (the Capital) is to be considered as an unfinished work.
The only volume personally edited by Marx is the first book of the Capital, which sees the light in 1867 by the German publisher Meissner. The first Italian translation is in 1896, directed by Gerolamo Boccardo for the UTET Economist Library, and is conducted on the French translation by Roy revised by Marx. Following the German edition of 1932 edited by the Marx-Engels-Lenin Institute is the successful Italian edition of Editori Riuniti, (edited by Delio Cantimori).
At first sight a commodity presented itself to us as a complex of two things – use value and exchange value. Later on, we saw also that labour, too, possesses the same two-fold nature; for, so far as it finds expression in value, it does not possess the same characteristics that belong to it as a creator of use values. I was the first to point out and to examine critically this two-fold nature of the labour contained in commodities.Archivio storico CGIL nazionale
La traduzione pubblicata in terza ristampa dalla Utet di Torino nel 1924, quella pubblicata da Corticelli a Milano nel 1946 e dalle Edizioni Rinascita nel 1956Archivio storico CGIL nazionale
The editions published by the Editori Riuniti in 1964 and by the publishing house Avanzini and Torraca in 1965, and the one published by Utet in 1974Archivio storico CGIL nazionale
The civil war in FranceArchivio storico CGIL nazionale
The civil war in France
The International Association of Workers entrusts Marx with an account of the political experience that has just been concluded by the Paris Commune. In the text proposed by Marx, in addition to giving an opinion on the events, it arises the problem of the management of power by the proletariat.
It was approved two days after the fall of the Communards, on May 30, 1871, and published in London on June 13, 1871. It is presented for the first time as a short pamphlet, preceded by two addresses by the General Council of the International. The fortune of the brochure in the environment of the International makes it possible that the first translations in almost all the European languages come out already in 1872.
But the working class cannot simply lay hold of the ready-made state machinery, and wield it for its own purposes.Archivio storico CGIL nazionale
The first Italian translation published in Bologna by the Azzoguidi Printing Company in 1894, and the one published by the Avanti! Publishing House in 1925Archivio storico CGIL nazionale
The edition re-published in Rome by the Editori Riuniti in the translation by Palmiro Togliatti in 1957 and that by Edizioni del Maquis of Milan in 1971Archivio storico CGIL nazionale
The Capital. Volume IIArchivio storico CGIL nazionale
The Capital. Volume II
The books of the Capital following the first one are posthumous works. Book II, as well as Book III, is the result of the revision of Marx's papers by Engels, who works from 1883 (the year of Marx's death) to 1885 on the rearrangement of a messy mass of notes. The discussion deals with the decisive concepts of circulation and capital rotation - in several editions there is the subtitle The process of circulation of Capital.
The reference manuscripts date back to the period between 1870 and 1878, a period that counted several stops for Marx's health problems. Aiming at following a chronological editing order by the author, Book II of the Capital would be the last to be written. Following this exhausting revision work, Engels released the second book of Capital in May 1885. The first Italian edition was published in 1908 (publisher L. Mongini).
Whether a product is fabricated as a commodity or not, it is always a material form of wealth, a use-value intended for individual or productive consumption. Its value as a commodity is ideally expressed in its price, which does not change its actual use-form in the least.Archivio storico CGIL nazionale
The edition published by Corticelli in Milan in 1946 and that by Edizioni Rinascita of 1953Archivio storico CGIL nazionale
The edition by Editori Riuniti of 1956 and that by Utet of 1980Archivio storico CGIL nazionale
The Capital. Volume IIIArchivio storico CGIL nazionale
The Capital. Volume III
The work of reorganizing the notes started by Engels continues until 1894, the year of publication of Book III of the Capital. It has complications, both due to the difficulty of rearranging the manuscripts by Marx over a period of 20 years, and the intensification of Engels' ophthalmia. If at least a part of the second book had been prepared by Marx for publication, the manuscripts that make up Book III are written between 1864 and 1865 - before Book I - and never reorganized as an organic project.
Despite the chronology, Book III of the Capital is a thematic completion of the two previous books, as suggested by the subtitle The overall process of capitalist production. It concludes the path that starting from production, passes through circulation, up to the creation of profit and land rent. «The process of capitalist production, taken as a whole, is the unity of the processes of production and circulation».
In the first place capitalist production is not at all interested in itself in the specific use value nor, in general, in the particular nature of the goods it produces. In every sphere of production the only goal is to produce surplus value, to take possession of unpaid labor in the product of labour. Likewise, it is part of the very nature of wage labor subservient to capital, being indifferent to the specific character of its work; it must be transformed according to the needs of capital and be thrown from one sphere of production to another.Archivio storico CGIL nazionale
The translations published in Rome in 1954 by Edizioni Rinascita, in 1965 and 1989 by Editori RiunitiArchivio storico CGIL nazionale
Ludwig Feuerbach and the end of classical German philosophyArchivio storico CGIL nazionale
and the end of classical German philosophy
In the years following the death of Marx, Engels devoted himself - working meanwhile on the unpublished works by Marx - to the dissemination of the Marxist theory. The short volume Ludwig Feuerbach and the end of classical German philosophy was published in 1886 in the journal "Die Neue Zeit" directed by Karl Kautsky, and later by the publisher J.H.W. Dietz with the addition of the eleven Theses on Feuerbach by Marx, in 1845.
The importance, for Engels, of the recovery of this very brief extract by Marx, lies in his aim at clearly marking the definitive step towards the materialistic conception of history as a philosophy of praxis.
The philosophers have only differently interpreted the world, but it is a matter of transforming it.Archivio storico CGIL nazionale
Engels essay, published in 1888, contains in appendix the eleven theses on Feuerbach written by Marx in 1845; here in the translation published by the Edizioni Rinascita in 1950 and by the Editori Riuniti in 1969Archivio storico CGIL nazionale
Theories of surplus-valueArchivio storico CGIL nazionale
Theories of surplus-value
The difficulty in arranging Marx's manuscripts is also due in part to his almost indecipherable spelling. Educating someone else to understand it, was a necessity for Engels, given the aggravation of his eye disease. Thus he instructs Eduard Bernstein and Karl Kautsky for this task. The latter is the editor of what Marx defines in a letter to Kugelmann the "IV Book of Capital", published posthumously with the title Theories of surplus-value.
It is a part of the manuscripts written by Marx between 1861 and 1863, which were followed by For the critique of political economy and prepared the Capital. The edition by Kautsky, dated 1905, contains a series of adjustments aimed at publication in a volume; on this edition is based the Einaudi edition, which appeared in three volumes with the title History of Economic Theories, while a new edition of the manuscripts was published in 1954 by the Marx-Engels Institute in Moscow, in Russian - in 1956 in German.
First of all, capitalist production develops on a large scale - distinctly separating it from the individual independent worker - the conditions of the working process, both its objective and subjective conditions, but develops them as powers that dominate the individual worker and are alien to him. Capital thus becomes a very mysterious being.Archivio storico CGIL nazionale
The editions published by Einaudi in 1954 and by Editori Riuniti in 1961Archivio storico CGIL nazionale
The editions by Editori Riuniti of 1973 and by Einaudi of 1977Archivio storico CGIL nazionale
AnthologiesArchivio storico CGIL nazionale
A testimony of the fortune of Marx's work are the uncountable anthologies, extracts, collections, and reductions of his writings. The complexity, the extension and the dispersion of the Marxian corpus, together with the intent of the socialist and communist parties to spread Marx's thought, explain this widespread diffusion.
The Capital, extracts by Paolo Lafargue, with a critical introduction by Vilfredo Pareto and a reply by Paolo Lafargue. Palermo, Sandron, 1894; The capital, popularized by Ettore Fabietti. Florence, G. Nerbini, 1913; Criticism of the Gotha program. Moscow, Editions in Foreign Languages, 1947; Pages of political philosophy, edited by Giuliano Pischel. Milan, Garzanti, 1947Archivio storico CGIL nazionale
Economical-philosophical manuscripts of 1844, translation by Norberto Bobbio. Turin, Einaudi, 1949; Italian writings, by Gianni Bosio. Milan-Rome, Avanti! Publications, 1955; On the Italian Risorgimento, preface by Ernesto Ragionieri. Rome, Editori Riuniti, 1959. Youth philosophical works, translation and notes by Galvano Della Volpe. Rome, Editori Riuniti, 1963.Archivio storico CGIL nazionale
Freedom of press and censorship, introduction by Iring Fetscher, edited by Mario Caciagli. Bologna, Guaraldi, 1970; The thought of Marx. Anthology edited by Umberto Cerroni. Rome, Editori Riuniti, 1972; Introduction of '57, introductory essay by Bruno Accarino. Verona, Bertani, 1975; Youth political writings, edited by Luigi Firpo. Turin, Einaudi, 1975Archivio storico CGIL nazionale
Unpublished writings of political economy, translation and introduction by Mario Tronti. Rome, Editori Riuniti, 1963. Basic features of the critique of political economy, 1857-1858, presentation, translation and notes by Enzo Grillo. Florence, New Italy, 1968; Capital: volume I, chapter VI unpublished. Results of the immediate production process, presentation, translation and notes by Bruno Maffi. Florence, New Italy, 1969; Forty-eight. The Neue Rheinische Zeitung, presentation, translation and notes by Bruno Maffi. Florence, New Italy, 1970Archivio storico CGIL nazionale
The analysis of the value-form, by Cristina Pennavaja. Rome-Bari, Laterza, 1976; Basic features of criticism of political economy. "Grundrisse", Italian edition by Giorgio Backhaus. Turin, Einaudi, 1976; The revolution in Spain, by Antonio Rubini. Rimini-Florence, Guaraldi, 1976; Writings on art, edited and with an introduction by Carlo Salinari. Rome-Bari, Laterza, 1978Archivio storico CGIL nazionale
Democritus and Epicurus. Doctoral dissertation discussed in Jena on April 15, 1841. Florence, La Nuova Italia, 1962; Manuscripts of 1861-1863, edited by Lorenzo Calabi. Rome, Editori Riuniti, 1980; Money and credit. Collection of writings, introduction and care by Suzanne de Brunhoff and Pierre Ewenczyk. Milan, Feltrinelli, 1981; Quaderno Spinoza (1841), edited by Bruno Bongiovanni. Turin, Bollati Boringhieri, 1987Archivio storico CGIL nazionale
LettersArchivio storico CGIL nazionale
Starting from the correspondence with Engels, the letters contain indispensable information to reconstruct the biography of Marx and to understand the genesis of his works.
A correspondence of 1843 and other youth writings. Rome, Rinascita, 1954; Marx-Engels correspondence. Rome, Renaissance, 1950-1953Archivio storico CGIL nazionale
Letters on the Capital. Rome, Samonà and Savelli, 1969; Letters to Kugelmann, preface by V.I. Lenin. Rome, Editori Riuniti, 1976Archivio storico CGIL nazionale
Collected WorksArchivio storico CGIL nazionale
The first project for an edition in German of the collected works of Marx and Engels (the Marx-Engels-Gesamtausgabe, MEGA) was launched in the Soviet Union in the first half of the nineteen twenties. The project ran into difficulty, but from 1928 to 1947, twenty eight volumes of the Sočinenija (Collected Works) were published, some in more than one part, for a grand total of 33 tomes.
From 1956 to 1968, 41 volumes of the Marx-Engels-Werke in 43 tomes were published in the German Democratic Republic, while the USSR saw a second edition of the Sočinenija (1955-1966, in 38 volumes). A new MEGA project was begun in the GDR in 1975 and interrupted in 1989. It resumed in 1990 under the joint auspices of the International Institute of Social History of Amsterdam and the Karl-Marx-House of Trier.
At the beginning of the twentieth century in Italy, the publisher Luigi Mongini began a first systematically based edition of the writings of Marx and Engels, together with works by Lassalle, which was then republished up to the mid-1920s by Edizioni Avanti! An Italian edition of the Works, based on the second MEGA, was published by Editori Riuniti between 1972 and 1990. After 32 of the 50 volumes planned had come out, the project was taken in hand by the Neapolitan publishing house La città del Sole.
Works by Marx, Engels, Lassalle. Milan, Avanti! Publishing company, 1922Archivio storico CGIL nazionale
Works. Rome, Editori Riuniti, 1972-1987 (32 volumes published out of the 50 expected); taken over in 2008 by La città del sole, NapoliArchivio storico CGIL nazionale
Works. Rome, Editori Riuniti, 1972-1987 (32 volumes published out of the 50 expected); taken over in 2008 by La città del sole, NapoliArchivio storico CGIL nazionale
By the National CGIL Historical Archive and the Gramsci Foundation,
with the contribution of the Giangiacomo Feltrinelli Foundation and the Lelio and Lisli Basso Foundation.
Selection of volumes by Dario Massimi (Gramsci Foundation), Vittore Armanni ( Giangiacomo Feltrinelli Foundation) and Maurizio Locusta (Lelio and Lisli Basso Foundation);
texts by Giordano Nardecchia;
graphic processing of images by Anna Bodini;
scientific coordination: Francesco Giasi and Ilaria Romeo.
See also www.marx200.it