The settlement at the archaeological site Čarnok served to store various grains after the harvest.

By Archeological Sites of Serbia

Ministry of Culture and Media of the Republic of Serbia

Photograph from excavation at the site “Čarnok” (1902/2015) by Joszef PechanArcheological Sites of Serbia

The archaeological site ‘Čarnok’, with cultural layers from the Eneolithic to the late Middle Ages, was explored by the members The Historical Society of the Bač-Bodrog Distric at the late 19th to the 20th century, and then by the experts of The Museum of Vojvodina from 1984 to 2008. The longest researched and material best suited is the period of the younger Iron Age. Several construction phases have been identified, as well as two types of settlements - open and closed.

Archaeological Site “Čarnok” near Vrbas, Section 25 (2016-09-20) by Photо by Nebojsa StanojevArcheological Sites of Serbia

Settlement in late La Tène period, so-called, oppidium, Čarnok, is located in the very heart of Bačka, in the rural area of Bačko Dobro Polje and is one of the few settlements in the Danube region, which is preserved entirely. It was built by the Scordisci, a Celtic tribe, in the second century BC, at the foot of the Telečka loess plateau, between the rivers of Jegrička in the south and the Crna bara (The Black Pond) in the north.

The favorable geographical position, good land and good communication with other settlements in the district were important factors for raising the settlement. The enclosed settlement was ellipsoidal, measuring 190 x 130 meters, with a massive earthy  rampart about 12 meters wide and up to 3 meters high, preserved to this day. The settlement was protected and was 12 meters wide by the tunnel, the contours of which are still being discovered.   

Among the ceramic materials are predominantly dominated by the "S" shaped perimeter, vessels in the form of vases (amphora), as well as fireplace ceramics - pots, most often decorated with comb garments. A special finding in Čarnok was a pair of silver fibulae (brooch) with a decoration on a rectangular leg and an arc.

Grain drying kiln View 2, Photо by Nebojsa Stanojev, 2016-06-11, From the collection of: Archeological Sites of Serbia
Grain drying kiln View 1, Photо by Nebojsa Stanojev, 2016-09-20, From the collection of: Archeological Sites of Serbia
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According to archaeobotanical findings, in the La Tène period, in this region barley and millet were grown, cereals that were adapted to the climatic conditions at that time. Large quantities of carbonated cereals, storage containers, baskets and silos show, above all, that the Scordisci in Bačka had organized agriculture. Several years of research at Čarnok confirmed that this is a prehistoric agricultural good, it has passed into modern economies and a very important trading and economic center during the 1st century BC.  and throughout the 1st century A.C.  

Pithos (2 – 1th century BC) by Photo by Vesna GrgurovicArcheological Sites of Serbia

In the horizon with overground objects on Čarnok, the remains of the following cereals are separated: barley (Hordeum vulgare), proso millet (Panicum miliaceum), foxtail millet (Setaria italica), einkorn wheat (Triticum monococum), rye (Secale cereale), spelt (triticum spelta), Timopheev's wheat (Triticum timopheevi).

Credits: Story

Ministry of Culture and Media of the Republic of Serbia
Town museum Vrbas

The narration was provided by: Vesna Grgurović, senior curator archaeologist, manager, Pavle B. Orbović, senior curator and historian, Dušanka Marković Museum Advisor Ethnologist, Museum of the City of Novi Sad, Silvija Vulanović, academic painter, Vesna Grgurović, senior curator archaeologist, manager.

Credits: All media
The story featured may in some cases have been created by an independent third party and may not always represent the views of the institutions, listed below, who have supplied the content.
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