TAMAR responds

About sea turtles

By TAMAR

Tamar

Olive ridley turtles nest in what is known as "arribadas", which are defined as a mass synchronized nesting, with hundreds of females coming ashore at the same time to lay their eggs. This phenomenon only occurs in India, Mexico and Costa Rica. (2009) by Banco de Imagens Projeto TAMARTAMAR

Hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata). (2008) by TAMAR Image BankOriginal Source: http://www.tamar.org.br

Sea turtle hatchlings (2007) by TAMAR Image BankOriginal Source: http://www.tamar.org.br

Is it a reptile?

Leatherback hatching out of the nest. Leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea) hatchlings are larger than those of other sea turtles. (2011) by Banco de Imagens Projeto TAMARTAMAR

Yes.

Sea turtles are reptiles that originated from their terrestrial ancestors. While they can spend long periods of time underwater, they breathe through their lungs and have to emerge from their aquatic environment. They also emerge to nest, depositing their eggs on land.

Loggerhead sea turtle (caretta caretta) with a group of fish in a cleaning station. Sea turtles allow these fishes to feed on epibionts on their shell. (2011) by Banco de Imagens Projeto TAMARTAMAR

How many species exist in the world?

Loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) hatchling. Sea turtles with a few months old are still considered hatchlings. (2008) by Banco de Imagens Projeto TAMARTAMAR

There are seven species of sea turtles in the world that are grouped into two families: Dermochelyidae and Cheloniidae. Of these seven species, five are found in all ocean basins, including the coast of Brazil.

Loggerhead (Caretta caretta)
Green (Chelonia mydas)
Hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata)
Olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea)
Leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea)

Juvenile green turtle. After their pelagic phase, juvenile green turtles return to coastal areas, using the high productivity of shallow areas to forage. The city of Ubatuba, on the northern coast of São Paulo is commonly used as a foraging ground by this species. (2013) by Banco de Imagens Projeto TAMARTAMAR

Where are the nesting areas in Brazil?

Late afternoon in Pirambu/Sergipe. Sea turtle hatchlings moving towards the sea. (2015) by Banco de Imagens Projeto TAMARTAMAR

Potentially, the whole Brazilian coast may receive female turtles to lay their eggs But usually the animals seek areas with warmer sand and water.

Therefore, the main nesting areas are in Rio de Janeiro State, north of the Espirito Santo State and extend across the Northeast regions of the Brazilian coast where temperatures are higher.

Hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata). Hawksbills are the most tropical of the sea turtles and are most commonly found in coral reefs and rocky areas of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. (2002) by TAMAR Image BankOriginal Source: http://www.tamar.org.br

How long a sea turtle live?

The leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea) is the largest of all living sea turtles. (2007) by TAMAR Image BankOriginal Source: http://www.tamar.org.br

Neither the researchers from Brazil, or the other countries have the correct answer. It is known the sea turtle is an animal with a long life cycle . Depending on the species, only became adults about 30 years. That is why scholars in the world estimate that sea ​​turtle can reach 100 years. But no one is completely sure.

Olive ridleys (Lepidochelys olivacea) are omnivorous and they feed on a variety of food items, including shrimp, fish, crabs, mollusks, jellyfish, algae and many others. (2007) by TAMAR Image BankOriginal Source: http://www.tamar.org.br

How long they can be underwater?

Olive ridley turtles nest in what is known as "arribadas", which are defined as a mass synchronized nesting, with hundreds of females coming ashore at the same time to lay their eggs. This phenomenon only occurs in India, Mexico and Costa Rica. (2009) by Banco de Imagens Projeto TAMARTAMAR

Between 10 and 30 minutes on average. The more active , less time dipping . When rise to breathe on the surface are less than two to three seconds.

It is the time necessary to eliminate the accumulated CO2 during the dive and inspire enough oxygen
for the next.

But if it wants, the turtle may remain on the surface longer, for example, floating to warm up, feed , orient or copulate .

Loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta). Loggerhead turtles are named for their large head and strong beak, which enables them to crush their food. (2010) by Banco de Imagens Projeto TAMARTAMAR

It sleeps?

Hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata). After Bahia, Rio Grande do Norte shows the highest hawksbill turtle nesting density in the South Atlantic.This speciesis currently classified as “Critically Endangered” by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). (2009) by Banco de Imagens Projeto TAMAROriginal Source: http://www.tamar.org.br

Yes , the sea turtle sleeps or rests. Typically at night, but can also be during the day. Sleeping on the seabed , protected by the rocks when the bottom is rocky or reef .

Also sleeping floating on the surface. But this varies .

When in oceaicn areas , for example, prefers to rest on the surface or in the water column .

Green turtle (Chelonia mydas). On oceanic islands, green turtle nesting season takes place between January and July. (2008) by Banco de Imagens Projeto TAMARTAMAR

What's its diet?

Each species has its preferred diet .

Green (Chelonia mydas) feeds on algae and sea grasses and olive (Lepidochelys olivacea) likes crustaceans, fish and shellfish .

The leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea) only eat jellyfish and other gelatinous organisms and the loggerhead (Caretta caretta) prefers crabs, clams, mussels and other invertebrates, crushed by the strength of its jaw.

The hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata) likes more sponges, but also eats a lesser amount of anemones, algae and crustaceans.

Handling a green turtle during research capture activities in Fernando de Noronha/PE. After tagging and measuring it, the researchers return the turtle to the ocean. (2000) by Banco de Imagens Projeto TAMARTAMAR

Are the sea turtles threatened with extinction?

Hawksbill sea turtle with a group of blue tangs (Acanthurus coeruleus) in a cleaning station. Sea turtles allow these fishes to feed on epibionts on their shell. (2009) by Banco de Imagens Projeto TAMARTAMAR

The five sea turtle species found in Brazil are threatened with extinction according to the Brazilian and IUCN list of endangered species.

Of the five species that occur on the Brazilian coast, the four listed as most threatened nest on the continental coast where they are more exposed to anthropogenic threats.

Loggerhead turtle. In Brazil, the loggerhead nesting season runs from september to march. (2015) by Banco de Imagens Projeto TAMARTAMAR

Why to protect?

Male green turtle (Chelonia mydas). Male green turtles almost never leave the water, except in a few places (i.e. Hawaii) where they rest on the shore. (2013) by Banco de Imagens Projeto TAMARTAMAR

We need to protect sea turtles. They represent the continuation of life over 100 million years. Despite threats, they fight to survive and to contribute to the lives of other species - including man.
Throughout their lives, sea turtles contribute energy and nutrients that are vital to the survival of many forms of life. Sea turtles depend on the existence of a multitude of fish, crustaceans, mollusks, sponges, and jellyfish. The also depend on the existence of mangroves, sand banks, seagrass, algae, coral reefs, islets, and geological formations.

To protect sea turtles is to preserve marine life, ensuring the survival of our planet and of humanity.

Credits: Story

Credits

TAMAR
Pro-TAMAR Foundation

Coordination: Guy Marie Guagni Dei Marcovaldi
Executive board, editing and technical consulting: Neca Marcovaldi
Curation and writing: Beatriz Ribas
Technical consulting and translation: Daphne Wrobel
Photos: Tamar Image Bank
Tamar Google Cultural Institute development: 2Palito Projetos

Tamar represents a sum of efforts between Pro-Tamar Foundation and Tamar/ICMBio/Environmental Ministry sponsored officialy by Petrobras.

National headquarters:
Rua Rubens Guelli, 134, sala 307
Ed. Empresarial Itaigara, Salvador, Bahia
Phone: (71) 3676-1045 protamar@tamar.org.br
http://www.tamar.org.br

Credits: All media
The story featured may in some cases have been created by an independent third party and may not always represent the views of the institutions, listed below, who have supplied the content.
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