The American Diary (1894/1894) by Elmer WhitingChicago History Museum
Out of the Fire
Elmer Whiting, a Chicago streetcar conductor, kept a detailed diary throughout 1894. That year Chicago still buzzed from the World’s Columbian Exposition, the world's fair held a year earlier. In these decades following the Chicago Fire of 1871, the city experienced great growth and transitions. Elmer’s diary is a window into that complex history.
"all went well" (1894/1894) by Elmer WhitingChicago History Museum
Many of Elmer Whiting’s 1894 diary entries sound similar to this page taken from New Year’s Day. Although much of the diary relates to his work, Elmer enjoyed life, writing about family, bicycling, and current events.
Elmer and Lou Whiting (1915/1915)Chicago History Museum
Elmer and Lou Whiting, c. 1915
Snyder's Real Estate Map (1894/1894)Chicago History Museum
The Whitings lived on West Van Buren Street, Couch’s Subdivision in the East Garfield Park neighborhood for most of 1894.
On October 31, the Whitings moved to a rental home with "[m]odern [i]mprovements" on West Congress Street, shortening Elmer's trip to work.
For work, Elmer reported to a streetcar barn on Kedzie Avenue near this location. Today, a Chicago Transit Authority bus barn stands in its place.
A City in Motion
By the 1890s, Chicago had developed into a bustling “Middle West” metropolis. Elmer conducted his horse-drawn streetcar through busy streets shared with new cable cars and electric streetcars, buggies, cyclists, and pedestrians. This meeting of people, animals, and machines created new demands for efficiency, safety, and workers’ rights.
West Madison Street from Western Avenue (1906/1906)Chicago History Museum
In 1894, Elmer conducted his horse drawn streetcar on Western Avenue. See the same street from a Chicago Transit Authority (CTA) bus today.
Elmer's daily "tripps" (1894/1894) by Elmer WhitingChicago History Museum
Elmer’s days consisted of many daily “tripps” in his streetcar. He wrote about dangerous weather, unusual passenger flow, or accidents – like one June 15 when Elmer’s streetcar struck a horse.
Ticket punch and transfer ticket (1892/1892)Chicago History Museum
Among many duties while conducting streetcars, Elmer probably punched tickets like this one.
From a store, Elmer purchased work pants like the ones shown in this advertisement in April. The following month officials reprimanded him for wearing those pants to work. He angrily wrote in his diary that his employer wanted a “stake” in uniform sales. He meant that the company wanted to make money from its employees buying its pants.
Horse-drawn streetcars, South Cottage Grove Avenue (1903/1903) by Chicago Daily NewsChicago History Museum
Elmer worked during the gradual transition from horse-drawn streetcars to cable and electric streetcars. This new machinery worked without the need for food or rest.
Artist's rendition of a cable car crash (1893/1893) by The GraphicChicago History Museum
Listen to a former Chicago Transit Authority train operator describe a 1977 accident and her own experiences.
Accidents commonly occurred on Chicago’s busy and dangerous streets during the late 1890s. In November, an Italian American boy, "Toney," collided with Elmer's streetcar. Luckily, Toney was only knocked down.
Van Buren Street bridge (1899/1899)Chicago History Museum
Chicago experienced continual modernization and rebuilding in the late 1800s. Hoping to create a more efficient city, public transportation companies added new lines, dug tunnels under the Chicago River, and updated infrastructure like this Van Buren Street bridge.
Sleighing in Garfield Park (1894/1894)Chicago History Museum
Listen while a former Chicago Transit Authority train operator recalls the 2011 blizzard on the Purple Line in Chicago's northern suburb of Evanston, Illinois.
While these sleigh riders enjoyed their winter wonderland, Elmer wrote about the “worst snowstorm in years.” In February, 84 mile per hour winds forced transportation workers to harness “4 horses [rather than the usual 2] … on each car all day.”
Cable car conductors ready for line-up (1900/1900)Chicago History Museum
Hear a retired Chicago Transit Authority train operator describe workplace friendships.
Streetcar conductors dressed with a sense of formality and neatness as employers required them to appear presentable. However, horses hooves often splattered mud onto horsecar conductors like Elmer. He couldn't avoid getting dirty.
Jos. Wollman Tailor shop (1895/1895)Chicago History Museum
Elmer’s conductor wages, at least $700 in 1894, allowed Lou and him to live more comfortably than other Chicagoans. In 1910, for example, men and women tailors on average earned only $400 and $214, respectively.
Going “Down City”
For the hardworking Elmer, a day off meant time to enjoy what Chicago had to offer. He often wrote about taking in city sites from the seat of his bicycle or enjoying live entertainment like a baseball game or a magic show.
Exploring "down city" (1894/1894) by Elmer WhitingChicago History Museum
In this May 12 entry, Elmer describes Chicago and Louisville teams going head-to-head in a baseball game. Elmer enjoyed many events from baseball to magic to political debates.
Chicago Opera House (right) (1893/1893)Chicago History Museum
Elmer and Lou watched magician Herrmann the Great perform at the Chicago Opera House in the spring. Herrmann’s show left an impression on Elmer, who described the magician as “a great [m]an.”
Herrmann the Great, Chicago Opera House program (1894/1894) by Chicago Opera HouseChicago History Museum
Elmer and Lou witnessed Herrmann the Great perform tricks, such as “The Escape of the Nihilist,” “The Mysterious Swing,” and “Modern Spirit Manifestations.”
Former site of Chicago Opera House, c.2015
Auditorium Theatre (1895/1895)Chicago History Museum
Elmer and Lou listened to lectures by Robert Ingersoll and William E. Mason at the Auditorium Theatre. Attending these events allowed the Whitings to stay up-to-date on current issues, like the annexation of Hawaii and international trade.
Exterior of Auditorium Theatre, c. 2015
Aftermath of World's Columbian Exposition fairgrounds fire (1894/1894)Chicago History Museum
Elmer mentioned more than one fire in his diary, including this one at the former World’s Columbian Exposition fairgrounds on July 5.
Streetcar conductor at a saloon (1900/1900)Chicago History Museum
Elmer participated in a "Turkey raffle" on Thanksgiving eve at a local saloon. Unfortunately, Elmer returned home at three in the morning empty handed.
Bicycle riders, Lincoln Park (1895/1895)Chicago History Museum
Much like these people in Lincoln Park, Elmer and Lou ventured into new parts of Chicago on their “wheels” after Elmer purchased bicycles in August.
The 40-Mile Ride map (1895/1895) by H. A. HamlinChicago History Museum
Many sites that Elmer and Lou explored on their bicycles appear on Chicago's "40-Mile" bicycle map, including city parks and suburbs.
Waldheim Cemetery gate (1892/1892)Chicago History Museum
In autumn, Elmer and his family passed through these gates to visit Waldheim Cemetery in west suburban Forest Park, Illinois. Elmer was a member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, which had a large monument at the cemetery.
Haymarket Martyrs' Monument, Waldheim Cemetery (1893/1893)Chicago History Museum
Elmer and Lou probably saw this monument to the Haymarket Martyrs on their visit to Waldheim Cemetery.
Union Stock Yard (1900/1900) by S. H. K. and CompanyChicago History Museum
In October, Elmer, Lou, and other family members rode their “wheels” to the Union Stock Yard. After seeing Chicago's industrial might on display, they returned home weary around 9 o’clock at night.
Garbage dump, Back of the Yards (1910/1910)Chicago History Museum
Although Elmer did not mention garbage dumps near the stock yards, the meat packing industry severely damaged the environment.
West Side Grounds (1907/1907) by Chicago Daily NewsChicago History Museum
Elmer rooted on May 12 while the Chicago White Stockings (also known as the Colts) defeated Louisville at West Side Grounds. Later that season, he saw Cleveland defeat Chicago.
Adrian "Cap" Anson (1894/1894) by American Sports Publishing CompanyChicago History Museum
An excited Elmer watched Adrian "Cap" Anson direct his team to victory during the Chicago-Louisville game on May 12.
Former site of West Side GroundsChicago History Museum
In 2008 — more than a century after Elmer watched games there — several groups erected a commemorative plaque at the former site of West Side Grounds.
Washington Park Racetrack (1902/1902) by Chicago Daily NewsChicago History Museum
Many Chicagoans loved horse racing in the 1890s. Thousands flocked to Washington Park Race Track to root for their favorite horses. In June, Elmer wrote that the American Derby race brought “heavy rideing” on his streetcar.
American Derby Day ticket (1893/1893)Chicago History Museum
As excited passengers on Elmer's streetcar rode home following the American Derby horse race, tickets like this one fluttered off their coats and littered the streetcar floor.
A City Progressing
Chicagoans, in the late 1800s, confronted economic depression mixed with urban and industrial booms. Elmer joined philanthropic and fraternal organizations aimed at solving problems created by these developments. Some solutions were peaceful. Others fueled prejudice and ended in violence.
"a shame to Cook County" (1894/1894) by Elmer WhitingChicago History Museum
Sometimes Elmer used his diary for political commentary. On March 8, he expressed dismay with the release of Dan Coughlin who had been convicted of Dr. P. H. Cronin's 1889 murder.
Magazine cover depicting Dr. P. H. Cronin's murder (1889/1889) by Old Cap. Collier LibraryChicago History Museum
In 1889, former Chicago police detective Dan Coughlin murdered Dr. P. H. Cronin of the Irish-American organization Clan-na-Gael. Despite Elmer's membership in the American Protective Association, an anti-Catholic society, he disgustedly declared Coughlin’s 1894 prison release “a shame to Cook County."
Chicago Mayor John Hopkins (1894/1894)Chicago History Museum
Despite rumors, Elmer claimed Chicago's first Irish American mayor would not "dare" raise an Irish flag over the courthouse on St. Patrick's Day. Elmer believed Mayor Hopkins would avoid such an overt sign of favoritism.
People's Institute Cornerstone Ceremonies program (1894/1894) by People's InstituteChicago History Museum
On July 4, Elmer described the crowd of 1,500 at the People's Institute cornerstone laying ceremony as "very noisey." He also mentioned politician William E. Mason's speech praising the People's Institute.
Troops sent to contain the Pullman strikers (1894/1894)Chicago History Museum
Elmer believed President Cleveland’s "funny work," sending troops into Chicago during the Pullman Strike, was unnecessary. His entries also mentioned the "terrible times" of violence between law enforcement and strikers.
Pullman riots wreckage (1894/1894)Chicago History Museum
Although Elmer made his usual “tripps” on July 2, the Pullman strikers’ decision to "tie off" railroad traffic disrupted Chicagoans' daily routines.
While enrolled in a public history course at the Chicago History Museum, these seventeen DePaul undergraduate students compiled much of this exhibition's preliminary work.
Curatorial Team – Madison Higgs, Sarah Howard, Kira S. Light, Joseph Magnelli, Derek Potts, and Peter T. Alter
Curatorial Assistant – Pieter de Tombe
Editors - Emily H. Nordstrom and Jill M. Walker
Rights and Reproductions – Angela Hoover and Sarah Yarrito
Photographers – Joseph Aaron Campbell and Stephen J. Jensen