WOMEN IN BELGIAN HISTORY

“Léonie La Fontaine, Feminist & Pacifist”

"Léonie La Fontaine (Brussels, 1857-1949) was more than just the sister
of one of Belgium’s best-known political figures of the early 20th
century: Henri La Fontaine, a socialist senator and the founder of the
Mundaneum, who was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1913.  She distinguished herself above all as a
pioneer in Belgium for the feminist and pacifist cause."

Léonie La Fontaine was born in Brussels on 2nd October 1857.

Like her brother, Léonie received a progressive education and her mother, Marie-Louise Philips (1826-1899), regularly organised functions attended by many intellectuals. The many campaigns led by Léonie on behalf of women and peace were marked by her influence…

Marie-Louise Philips, From the collection of: Mundaneum
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Marie-Louise Philips, mother of Henri and Léonie La Fontaine (1826-1899) 

[Léonie La Fontaine], From the collection of: Mundaneum
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Léonie La Fontaine...

Léonie La Fontaine and friends, From the collection of: Mundaneum
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... Léonie La Fontaine and friends

Léonie was very close to her brother, Henri La Fontaine, and followed his career closely. They often joined forces to carry out projects, ranging from political initiatives to intellectual cooperation.

Travel to Switzerland, From the collection of: Mundaneum
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Journey to Switzerland - Léonie La Fontaine, her brother Henri on the far right, and friends, during an excursion in Switzerland

The Marie Popelin Affair, a trigger for the feminist struggle in Belgium:



The Popelin Affair broke in 1888. Marie Popelin (1846-1913), a law graduate from the Free University of Brussels, was refused access to the Brussels Bar Association because she was a woman.  

This decision subsequently triggered a support movement highlighting the condition of women in Belgium. Progressive men and women, including Hector Denis, Louis Franck, Marie Popelin, Isala Van Diest, Henri La Fontaine, and Léonie La Fontaine, joined this movement, which resulted in the creation of the Ligue Belge du Droit des Femmes in 1892.

[Letter of Marie Parent, Président of the Belgian League of Women's Rights], 1931, From the collection of: Mundaneum
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The League, publication of the Belgian League of Women's Rights, 1893, From the collection of: Mundaneum
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Letter from Marie Parent, President of the Ligue Belge du Droit des Femmes, 1931 La Ligue, the Belgian voice of
Women’s Rights, 1893

For Léonie La Fontaine, the feminist struggle then became a major concern. She joined the Board of the Ligue. In turn, she would become treasurer, president of the Welfare section, and editor of the Ligue’s magazine. She also spearheaded a general propaganda campaign for female emancipation - the abolition of Salic law, the right to suffrage, the right to make savings and to testify, and wider access to professions.

Marie Popelin, From the collection of: Mundaneum
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Marie Popelin (1846-1913)

Belgian League of Women's Rights Members, 1897, From the collection of: Mundaneum
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La Femme et le Barreau, 1901, From the collection of: Mundaneum
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The Office of the Ligue Belge du Droit des Femmes in 1897 Women and the Bar, 1901 Marie Popelin, Secretary General of the Ligue Belge du Droit des Femmes

Shared knowledge for everyone: Information for girls

Very close to her brother and to his work, Léonie La Fontaine participated in the production of entries to the Universal Bibliographic Repertory alongside Paul Otlet and Henri La Fontaine from 1893. 

These were the two men behind the creation of the Office International de Bibliographie in Brussels in 1895.

Léonie La Fontaine’s participation in this catalogue encouraged her to promote women, information, and feminist propaganda. 

In 1895, she set up an office in her own home to provide information on trades, careers and professions for women.In the early 20th century, the project grew to international proportions with the creation of the Office de Documentation Féminine within the Institut International de Bibliographie.

The Universal Bibliographic Directory, 1900, From the collection of: Mundaneum
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The Universal Bibliographic Repertory circa 1900

Belgian feminism take on an international dimension:

In 1905, all the political agendas of the women’s movement in Belgium were united under the Conseil National des Femmes Belges.

This new institution enabled women to join the leading international feminist body, the International Council of Women (ICW) created by American women in the USA in 1888.

American Ladies, 1902, From the collection of: Mundaneum
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Great American Women

National Council of Belgian Women - Members, From the collection of: Mundaneum
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Conseil National des Femmes Belges - Members

Status of Women, publication of the International Council of Women, From the collection of: Mundaneum
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Member card of Léonie La Fontaine to World Federation of suffrage of women, 1908, From the collection of: Mundaneum
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[Letter of Mrs. Jules Siegfried to Léonie La Fontaine], 1914, From the collection of: Mundaneum
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The Status of Women, published by the International Council of Women Léonie La Fontaine’s membership card for the “Wereldbond voor Wrouwenkiesrecht” (International Women’s Suffrage Alliance) Letter from Ms. Jules Siegfried to Léonie La Fontaine - 1914

Day of German Women, 1903, From the collection of: Mundaneum
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German Women’s Day, Cologne, 1903

[Letter of the National Council of Italian Women], 1913, From the collection of: Mundaneum
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Letter from the National Council of Italian Women (Consiglio Nazionale Delle Donne Italiane) addressed to Léonie La Fontaine - 1913

Beyond Feminism: a commitment to pacifism

Léonie La Fontaine’s commitment to pacifism officially dates back to her joining the International Union of Women for Peace, in 1895. The Hague Peace Conference in 1899 further strengthened her commitment to the cause.

From 1911, Léonie joined a campaign to spread awareness among the younger generations in the schools of Brussels. In Belgium, she came to be seen as the spokeswoman for pacifism and chaired the pacifist section of the Conseil National des Femmes Belges.

Internationally, her activities became diversified within associations such as the “Peace and Arbitration” section of the International Council of Women.

Conference of Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, 1922, From the collection of: Mundaneum
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[Card of Léonie La Fontaine for vote to the Universal Congress of Peace to Geneva], 1912, From the collection of: Mundaneum
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Feast of peace may 1911 - Program, 1911, From the collection of: Mundaneum
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Conference organised by the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom Voting card issued to Léonie La Fontaine during the 19th Universal Peace Conference in Geneva, 1912 Programme from the Fête de la Paix (Peace Festival) held on 18th May 1911 by the Local Authority of Laeken, 1911

Text of Mr Marc Bloch and presented to the Universal Congress of Peace to Lucerne, 1905, From the collection of: Mundaneum
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Instructions for the competition of drawing by the Peace section of the National council of Belgian Women, 1912, From the collection of: Mundaneum
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Symbol of peace drawing contest held by the Peace Section of the Conseil National des Femmes Belges - 1912

The Symbol of the Peace, 1912, From the collection of: Mundaneum
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Symbol of pacifism drawing contest

The Symbol of the Peace, L. Wehli, 1912, From the collection of: Mundaneum
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Drawing symbolising peace, L. Wehli - 1912

During the First World War, Léonie fled to Switzerland, where she took part in international mutual aid movements, and went willingly to meet her pacifist counterparts at the Hague meeting of 1915.

Camp Zeist, 1916, From the collection of: Mundaneum
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Postcard received by Léonie La Fontaine in 1916

After the war, Léonie returned to her militant activities during the 1921 legislative elections. 

With Marie Parent, she founded the Parti Général des Femmes, the women’s party. 

No seats were won, but this party reflected the ideals upheld by women who still did not benefit from voting rights. In Belgium, they would have to wait until 1948 for these rights…

General Party of belgian women: "Call to women", 1921, From the collection of: Mundaneum
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La Femme et le vote by Marie Parent, From the collection of: Mundaneum
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Parti Général des Femmes Belges: “Call to Women” - 1921 Women and the Vote by Marie Parent

Comparative Table: Countries where the women have the right to vote and Countries where the women are eligible at the Parliament or at the Senate, From the collection of: Mundaneum
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Table showing countries where women have voting rights and those where women can be elected to Parliament and the Senate

Political rights of the women in the world, From the collection of: Mundaneum
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Political rights of women in the world

Repartition of women-deputy by political party in England, 1930, From the collection of: Mundaneum
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Breakdown of English female MPs by political party - 1930

Suffragettes in London crusade: propaganda over water, 1910, From the collection of: Mundaneum
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The suffragettes in London, a feminist movement which arose in the United Kingdom at the beginning of the 20th century

The new voter: « Poor old dears! - Isn't it pathetic? », From the collection of: Mundaneum
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English political poster

The first woman-deputy, in Norway. Anna in the middle of her class, 1909, From the collection of: Mundaneum
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Anna Rogstad, Norway’s first woman MP (1911)

Women who vote, the voters arrive, "Your ballot Ladies", 1910, From the collection of: Mundaneum
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“Your voting card, ladies”

A new generation of feminists demand their place in society. Women were first granted access to the Bar in the twenties. 

In 1924, Léonie set up the Belgian section of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom.  Her activity during the thirties tended to be less in favour of feminism than of pacifism. After the Second World War, women obtained the right to vote. 

By a sad twist of fate, Léonie died on 26th January 1949, the same year as the law granting women the vote came into effect…

Court of Love, 1949, From the collection of: Mundaneum
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Caricature: politicians trying to attract women after they won the right to vote

"“We
ardently hope that a day will come, nevertheless, when women will be
called to sit alongside men. We are convinced that on that day, wars
will no longer be possible. On that day, there will be no more
militarism and no more imperialism, and we will see ‘United States of
Europe’ written in gold letters on our lawcourts.”"

Credits: Story

Rôle—Stéphanie Manfroid, responsable des archives

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The story featured may in some cases have been created by an independent third party and may not always represent the views of the institutions, listed below, who have supplied the content.
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