Votes for Women handbill (1911) by Women's Social and Political Union and St Clements PressMuseum of London
Museum of London curator Beverley Cook on the importance of their archive
In 1950 the Museum of London acquired a truly exceptional collection of archives, visual material and mementoes relating to the militant Votes for Women campaign. Gifted by the Suffragette Fellowship, the collection provides a unique insight into the lives of Suffragettes and, in particular, those who served terms of imprisonment for the cause. Behind every object or photograph is an individual and highly personal story of courage and commitment.
The Suffragette Fellowship was formed in 1926 by former members of the Women’s Social and Political Union and Women’s Freedom League ‘to perpetuate the memory of the pioneers and outstanding events connected with women’s emancipation and especially with the militant suffrage campaign’. The members of the Fellowship became the first curators of suffrage history, memorializing their militant campaign by collecting and preserving both the memories and possessions of former Suffragette prisoners.
Votes for Women handbill, WSPU (From the collection of Museum of London)
Alongside the collection, the Museum of London also inherited the immense responsibility of the Fellowship’s founding aim of ‘keeping alive the Suffragette spirit’. Since 1951 the Museum has always displayed a small number of items from the Fellowship’s collection in its permanent galleries. This has primarily consisted of the most visually appealing objects, including banners, sashes and rosettes in the Suffragette colours of purple, white and green. We’ve also displayed striking items relating to militant action: prison medals and weapons such as a hammer and cosh used in window-breaking.
Over 1,300 women served terms of imprisonment for militancy but many thousands supported the principle of direct action without risking arrest. Behind every militant act was the highly sophisticated suffrage campaign, which relied on an army of fundraisers, volunteers and organisers. The focus of the Fellowship on arrest and imprisonment resulted in the under-representation of these ‘foot soldiers’. This version of the campaign has, at times, been difficult for the Museum to challenge.
Suffragette prisoners prepare to take part in a procession in support of the Conciliation Bill (1910) by Broom, ChristinaMuseum of London
Suffragette prisoners prepare to take part in a procession in support of the Conciliation Bill by Christina Broom (From the collection Museum of London)
In recent years attempts have been made to correct this imbalance by collecting material relating to those Suffragettes who, although never imprisoned, were equally significant to the cause but whose contribution has been forgotten. In 2015, for example, the museum acquired a small collection of fashion accessories and merchandise in the purple, white and green colours of the WSPU previously owned by Dorothy Meihè.
Dorothy Louise Meihè (1908-1911)Museum of London
Dorothy Louise Meihè (From the collection of Museum of London)
Dorothy would not have been contacted by the Fellowship when they were creating their collection of ‘prison relics’ as she did not serve a term of imprisonment for militancy. But she, along with her mother, sister and maternal aunt, Alice Wilson were all involved with the Women's Social & Political Union. In 1911 they organised the curio and bric-à-brac stall at the WSPU Christmas Fundraising Fair and records show that Dorothy was also a regular personal financial donor to the campaign. The family lived in Streatham and the collection also suggests that Dorothy attended mass rallies and processions wearing the Suffragette colours with pride. Such new additions to the collections are vital to ‘keeping alive the Suffragette spirit’ by representing all shades of militant action.
Surveillance image of suffragette prisoners (1913-1914)Museum of London
Surveillance photograph of suffragette prisoners at Holloway Prison (From the collection of Museum of London)
The most shocking and memorable images and objects in the collection are those relating to the hunger strike and force-feeding of Suffragette prisoners. Whilst these can be emotively powerful to display, rather disturbingly they also represent women as victims of the male-dominated society in which they lived. Such displays need to be balanced by equally powerful representations of Suffragettes as the strong, self-confident women who worked together to bring about change.
WSPU Holloway Prisoners banner (1910) by Macbeth, AnnMuseum of London
WSPU Holloway Prisoners banner (From the collection of Museum of London)
The current permanent Suffragette display at the Museum of London includes one of the most emotively powerful objects in the entire collection: the Holloway Prisoners’ banner. First carried in the From Prison to Citizenship procession in June 1910 the banner is composed of eighty pieces of linen embroidered with the signatures of eighty hunger strikers who, by 1910, had 'faced death without flinching'. Designed by the Scottish embroiderer Ann Macbeth, the banner symbolises not only the sacrifice of the hunger strike but the spirit of comradeship that gave Suffragettes such enduring courage and strength.
Provoking emotion within a museum setting is hugely challenging but, when effective, can create a strong impression. In 2012 three educators working in the modern Holloway prison visited the museum. Standing before the WSPU Holloway prisoners’ banner they were so inspired by its story that they returned to Holloway determined to create their own prisoners’ quilt. During a series of workshops held in each prison wing over several weeks, prisoners were each given a square of cotton and asked to express through embroidery, ink and paint their thoughts and hopes for 2012, the year when the ‘freed’ nation came together to celebrate the London Olympic Games and Queen’s Diamond Jubilee. In some workshops women interpreted for one another, ensuring that vulnerable prisoners who were unable to join the main prison population were heard. Women on the Lifers’ Unit spent hours in their rooms embroidering the words of other women. In other workshops women chose totemic words for the quilt border representing what they hoped to find on release: 'cake', 'love', 'respect', freedom', 'family', 'sex' and 'money'.
Charlotte Marsh (1910) by Broom, ChristinaMuseum of London
Charlotte Marsh holding a banner by Christina Broom (From the collection of Museum of London)
Two years ago the 2012 Holloway quilt was gifted to the Museum of London and, in July and August 2018 will be on temporary display just metres away from the original 1910 Holloway prisoners’ banner. We hope that the poignant messages and stories, hopes and fears depicted on the quilt ensure it will have as much power and impact as the display of the historic WSPU Holloway prisoners’ banner.
The museum’s responsibility for ‘keeping alive the Suffragette spirit’ is not just about representing the struggles of the past but also about looking forwards. It is about understanding the contemporary relevance of the militant Suffragette campaign and the emotional power of its visual and material legacy, which continues to inspire, shock and divide opinion. I believe the Fellowship would have been incredibly proud of the creation of contemporary works directly influenced by the museum’s Suffragette collection, such as the quilt. For, as Annie Kenney wrote in the Suffragette Fellowship newsletter Calling All Women in 1952:
"May the younger generation find in this Museum the inspiration and will to dedicate their lives anew to high and noble deeds."
Annie Kenney on a deputation to the Prime Minister (1906) by BarrattMuseum of London
Annie Kenney on a deputation to Herbert Asquith with Mrs Knight and Mrs Sparborough (From the collection of Museum of London)