EMERGENCE. The Antwerp 6+1

the rise of the Antwerp 6+1

Postcard for Marina Yee (Marie) by Marina YeeMoMu - Fashion Museum Antwerp

The evolution of our group of friends was something of a stroke of magic. It was not that way immediately, from the first day, but it clicked, the way it clicks with someone you’re in love with. You can’t explain it; it just clicks.
We complemented one another in terms of our sense of humour, and temperament: one was timid, the other impetuous…

Fashion Show Invitation at Scheldekaaien Antwerp (1985)MoMu - Fashion Museum Antwerp

A brief history of the Antwerp Six+1



Ronald Stoops, Rudolf Verbesselt, Jan Janssen and Narcisse Tordoir © Narcisse Tordoir (1979)MoMu - Fashion Museum Antwerp

The city

In the 1960s and 1970s, Antwerp developed an exciting, internationally-orientated art and music scene. Avant-garde galleries like the Wide White Space brought attention to artists such as Joseph Beuys, Marcel Broodthaers, and Panamarenko.

Situationist actions were also a popular artistic outlet during this time. Pictured here are Ronald Stoops, Rudolf Verbesselt, Jan Janssen and Narcisse Tordoir in their "direct actions", in which they wore business suits and begged at the offices of banks in Antwerp.

Bartson's Winter Collection, Late 1970s © Bartson's ArchivesMoMu - Fashion Museum Antwerp

Despite the favourable artistic climate in Antwerp, the city had yet to cultivate a distinct artistic identity. This was also reflected in the Belgian fashion sector.

Until the early 1980s, popular Belgian brands including Olivier Strelli, Bartsons, and Cortina, had opted for more exotic names, who were in turn more likely to obscure rather than emphasise their Belgian roots.

WHAMBAM! Silhouette © Stany Dederen (2015) by Walter Van BeirendonckMoMu - Fashion Museum Antwerp

But things would change drastically…

At the beginning of the eighties, seven students would graduate from the Antwerp Fashion Department who will instigate a revolution in its history.

Walter Van Beirendonck and Martin Margiela met in 1976 in their first year at the Antwerp Fashion Department. They immediately became friends, sharing similar fascinations and international ambitions.

Marie Claire Belgium: 'Sept Stylistes En Quete De Confectionners'MoMu - Fashion Museum Antwerp

The other five students joined the two a year later at the Fashion Department of the Royal Academy of Fine Art in Antwerp.

They quickly formed a group of seven hard-working fashion students, striving to be one step ahead of each other.

Through healthy competition, they strengthened each other's drive and creativity.

Invitation for British Designers Show 1987 (1987) by Marina YeeMoMu - Fashion Museum Antwerp

The contrasts amongst the Antwerp Six brought tensions, but we also reinforced one another, because those tensions generated new impulses. Everyone wanted to show what he or she was capable of. That is also part of the secret of the Six: because of those tensions and cross-fertilizations, we got the best out of ourselves… MARINA YEE

A creative crescendo

The culmination of blossoming creative talent 

Class of 1979 in Historical Costumes © Martha Van Leemput Archives (1979)MoMu - Fashion Museum Antwerp

"Work hard, play hard" was the motto of the Antwerp Six+1, and they made the time to go out partying. A shared sense of fun in dressing up and going out strengthened their group dynamic.

They would meet up at Dries Van Noten’s workspace to discuss their costumes, and often created them on the spot: from lavish Marie-Antoinette crinoline gowns to leather SM suits, everything was possible.

Mary Prijot with Hieron Pessers and Marthe Van Leemput © Gérald Dauphin (1975) by Gérald DauphinMoMu - Fashion Museum Antwerp

Under the leadership of Mary Prijot, the Department of Decorative and Fashion Drawing developed into a fully-fledged training programme in fashion drawing, with a distinct focus on the graphic aspects of the design process.

Mary Prijot was a classically trained artist, and her conception of fashion held French elegance in very high regard. As such, embracing fashion drawings and fashion graphics as part of the investigation into the atmosphere, and image of a collection were crucial components of the Department’s training.

Martin Margiela 'Constructivism' Illustration by Martin MargielaMoMu - Fashion Museum Antwerp

Walter Van Beirendonck and Martin Margiela were both fiercely experimental students.

Walter was more future-oriented, while Martin was more preoccupied with imbuing his designs with a sense of history and past.

Marie Silhouette © Andrew MacPherson (1980) by Marina Yee and Hobo MiyoshiMoMu - Fashion Museum Antwerp

The two women of the group, Ann Demeulemeester and Marina Yee, also had opposite energies: Marina Yee immersed herself in the art world and was the most bohemian of the group...

Portrait of Ann Demeulemeester © Patrick RobynMoMu - Fashion Museum Antwerp

...while Ann Demeulemeester found creative energy in music and poetry, stimulating her to create new shapes and silhouettes.

Dries Van Noten Look © Patrick Robyn (1987) by Dries Van NotenMoMu - Fashion Museum Antwerp

Dries Van Noten often skipped classes, as he worked for more than five clothing companies during his Academy years.

Patchwork Leather Biker Jacket Look © Ronald Stoops by Dirk BikkembergsMoMu - Fashion Museum Antwerp

Dirk Bikkembergs was striving to become a successful designer and had already developed a personal flair for footwear during his Academy years.

Trompe L'Oeil Cotton Skirt © Ronald Stoops by Dirk Van SaeneMoMu - Fashion Museum Antwerp

Dirk Van Saene went his own way artistically. Hailing from a family of painters, Van Saene not only expresses himself in fashion, but he also draws, paints, and sculpts ceramic art.

Dirk Bikkembergs Campaign (1986) by Dirk BikkembergsMoMu - Fashion Museum Antwerp

Both in the spheres of fashion and music, new currents and names inspired the young designers in Antwerp. During their travels to London and New York they discovered - among other things - punk and the New Romantic movement. Together they visited clubs like the 'Antwerp OK Club', as well as the famous ‘Le Palace’ in Paris, Leigh Bowery’s ‘Taboo Club’ in London, and Andy Warhol’s ‘Interview parties’ in New York.

They attended live concerts both home and abroad, discovering different musical styles ranging from rock, disco, glam, and punk.

Dirk Van Saene Show Invitation by Dirk Van SaeneMoMu - Fashion Museum Antwerp

Their desire for experimentation could not be curbed by the rules of the fashion department’s director Mary Prijot, and the international revolutions concurrent in the fashion world were also felt in Antwerp.

After graduation, the seven experimented with different commercial jobs. The money they earned was immediately invested into their own collections, with the dream of establishing their own labels.

'Gouden Spoel' Invitation (1983) by Gouden SpoelMoMu - Fashion Museum Antwerp

During the eighties, Belgian fashion gained real momentum thanks to the Belgian government’s ‘Textile Plan’, which originally intended to breathe new life into the country’s ailing textile industry.

The domestic success of the Antwerp Six in the Golden Spindle (Gouden Spoel) competitions and the campaigns of the ITCB (Institute for Textiles and Clothing Belgium) under the leadership of Helena Ravijst did not go unnoticed, although the Belgian press didn't always ‘get’ the Antwerp designers.

A Taste of Japan - Flyer for the Belgian Designers Fashion ShowMoMu - Fashion Museum Antwerp

As part of the Golden Spindle competition, professional shows were organised, two of which took place in Japan.

These shows constituted an important stepping-stone for the future solo careers of the Antwerp Six +1, and were inspirational as they allowed the young designers to further explore the work of Japanese designers including Rei Kawakubo and Yohji Yamamoto.

Beauties & Heroes Storefront © Dirk Van Saene (1982) by Dirk Van SaeneMoMu - Fashion Museum Antwerp

In 1981, Dirk Van Saene opened his shop Beauties & Heroes in the Nieuwe Gaanderij in Antwerp:

I graduated in 1981. A year later, I opened a small shop in the Nieuwe Gaanderij: Beauties & Heroes. I had prepared some things, made some clothes - all very naïve. I had a very small studio above the store.

There, I made things against the clock, because there were always just a couple of pieces in the store. Sometimes all I had was something in the window, and if somebody came along to buy it, I refused. But usually, I was very proud whenever someone bought something from me.
The first few times I sold something, it felt terrific.

Oversized Jacket with Woven Interior Patterns© Ronald Stoops by Walter Van BeirendonckMoMu - Fashion Museum Antwerp

In 1985, Walter Van Beirendonck began teaching fashion at the Fashion Department next to Linda Loppa. Walter continues to teach third year students, and is the current director of the department.

Dries Van Noten Antwerp Icons © Ronald Stoops by Dries Van NotenMoMu - Fashion Museum Antwerp

Right after graduation in 1982, Dries Van Noten began work on his own collections, running his own shop while also working for many different commercial brands.

He has since refocused his entire attention on his own brand.

Tabi Boot Tabi Boot © Stany DederenMoMu - Fashion Museum Antwerp

In 1984, Martin Margiela began working at Jean Paul Gaultier in Paris. From this moment, Martin Margiela parted ways with the other six designers, who all stayed in Antwerp.

Their unique group dynamic ensured that they were the Academy’s first generation to make an international breakthrough.

British Designer Show 1986 © MoMu-Linda Loppa ArchivesMoMu - Fashion Museum Antwerp

London, 1986


Dirk Bikkembergs Campaign (1986/1987) by Dirk BikkembergsMoMu - Fashion Museum Antwerp

In 1986, Dirk Bikkemberg started an avant-garde men’s shoe collection that would be sold at Eddy Michiels and Geert Bruloot’s store, Coccodrillo.

It was Geert Bruloot who had the idea of attending a fashion fair in London, with the aim of selling Bikkemberg’s shoes to cutting edge shops in England’s capital.

Golden Spindle Entry © Patrick Robyn (1982) by Ann DemeulemeesterMoMu - Fashion Museum Antwerp

The rest decided to join in the adventure, with only Ann Demeulemeester staying in Belgium as she was about to give birth to her son Victor. Instead, she sent along her collection of sunglasses.

Flyer for British Designers Show 1986 © MoMu-Linda Loppa ArchivesMoMu - Fashion Museum Antwerp

They rented a booth together on the fourth floor among the bridal wear at the British Designer Show.

As nobody came to see them the first day, they decided to create an eye-catching flyer to attract buyers’ attention.

Walter Van Beirendonck and Dirk Van Saene at the British Designer Show 1986 © Dirk Van Saene ArchivesMoMu - Fashion Museum Antwerp

On the second day, a few but important buyers came by. A buyer from Barney’s was particularly enthusiastic, and ultimately ordered from all six designers.

Because of the impossible pronunciation of their Belgian last names, they were baptised the Antwerp Six.

The international breakthrough of the Antwerp Six happened in an instance of talent and luck, without a commercial strategy or investors on their side.

In the next few days, they received orders from other international buyers.

British Designer Show 1986 © MoMu-Linda Loppa ArchivesMoMu - Fashion Museum Antwerp

The Six returned to London each following season with more clothes on their racks.

During their presence at London Fashion Week in March 1988, they had their big break with the English and international press, with i-D and other hip magazines cheering them on.

In 1988, the Antwerp Six switched Paris for London to present their collections.

Dirk Bikkembergs Show Invitation Sept 3, 1989 by Dirk BikkembergsMoMu - Fashion Museum Antwerp

The Belgians were praised for the way they presented a complete image, how they marketed themselves, and their total control over every detail.

Although each of them developed their own signature, and have gone their own way creatively and commercially, the name ‘Antwerp Six’ has remained a hallmark to today.

Credits: Story

Thanks for the kind image loans from:
Stany Dederen (MoMu Collection photoshoots)
Boy Kortekaas
Patrick Robyn
Ronald Stoops

Special thanks to the Antwerp 6+1

Credits: All media
The story featured may in some cases have been created by an independent third party and may not always represent the views of the institutions, listed below, who have supplied the content.
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