Neetôpáwees

Dolls as Ambassadors of Native Culture

By The Mashantucket Pequot Museum & Research Center

"Neetôpáwees
(nee-top-a-wees) is the Pequot word for “little friends.”  Join the Mashantucket Pequot Museum & Research Center on a journey of discovery to learn
why our neetôpáwees are called ambassadors of culture. The historical
and contemporary dolls show some of the important roles that
dolls have played in Native North American tribal communities for a very long time.

While most
of our dolls come from Eastern Woodlands cultures, others are from a wide range
of North American tribes. One has traveled all the way from St. David’s Island,
Bermuda – learn why this doll is so important to Pequot history."

The Many Rolls of Dolls, From the collection of: The Mashantucket Pequot Museum & Research Center
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"The Many Roles of Dolls

The earliest dolls found in North America represented a spiritual power
in healing and ceremonies. These dolls are often called medicine dolls, and because
they are considered sacred, they are not included in this exhibit. Over time,
some dolls took on the role of guardians and protectors. 

Other
dolls performed different roles. They were given as gifts, sold as souvenirs,
and offered as toys. Sparking imaginative play, the dolls allowed young people to
act out the skills needed in the adult world."

"Mákooôkanash | Gifts

Gifts are frequently exchanged when tribes visit each other. Gift giving serves as an important way to show respect and reinforce social relationships, but most importantly, it is a way for Native people to honor one another. As gifts, dolls act as little “ambassadors” from one tribe to another."

Banana Leaf Doll, Ronnie Chameau, 2002, From the collection of: The Mashantucket Pequot Museum & Research Center
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Doll, Mohawk, Ema Delaronde, 1900/1950, From the collection of: The Mashantucket Pequot Museum & Research Center
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Canoe Model with Dolls, 1780/1820, From the collection of: The Mashantucket Pequot Museum & Research Center
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"“They were given to friends and people who had some specific interest in them or people that perhaps we wanted to honor in some way for something they had done.”

Melissa Tantaquidgeon Zobel (Mohegan)"

Hayward Reels Goodwin Marionette, Buddy Big Mountain (Mohawk/Comanche) and his wife Diana Big Mountain, 1990/1999, From the collection of: The Mashantucket Pequot Museum & Research Center
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Doll, Hoopa Brush Dance regalia, Sarah Carpenter, 1997, From the collection of: The Mashantucket Pequot Museum & Research Center
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"Tree of Nations

In 1999, the Mashantucket Pequot Museum & Research Center wrote to Native American tribes across the United States asking for Christmas tree ornaments for what would be the Museum's Tree of Nations. 

Several tribes sent dolls to represent their nation. Every December the decorated tree is displayed in the Museum's Gathering Space."

Tree of Nations, 2011, From the collection of: The Mashantucket Pequot Museum & Research Center
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Tree of Nations: Video, Mashantucket Pequot Museum & Research Center, 2011, From the collection of: The Mashantucket Pequot Museum & Research Center
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The Tree of Nations is on view every December at the Mashantucket Pequot Museum & Research Center.

Cornhusk Doll, Miami Tribe of Oklahoma, Larry Daylight, 2010, From the collection of: The Mashantucket Pequot Museum & Research Center
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Palmetto Doll, Miccosukee, Miccosukee, 2010, From the collection of: The Mashantucket Pequot Museum & Research Center
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Sakakawea Doll, 1999, From the collection of: The Mashantucket Pequot Museum & Research Center
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Doll Ornaments, Jessica Yazzie, 1999, From the collection of: The Mashantucket Pequot Museum & Research Center
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Spanish Moss Dolls, Mrs. Marie Dean, 1999, From the collection of: The Mashantucket Pequot Museum & Research Center
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Doll, Makah, Theresa Parker, 1999, From the collection of: The Mashantucket Pequot Museum & Research Center
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Doll, Kitanemuk & Yowlumne Tejon, Delia “Dee” Dominguez, 1999, From the collection of: The Mashantucket Pequot Museum & Research Center
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Doll Ornament, 1999, From the collection of: The Mashantucket Pequot Museum & Research Center
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"Ahkee | Land 

Native American doll makers have a long tradition of using materials
gathered from the natural world. Many of these materials are used for other
activities, from food and clothing to houses. 

For example, people use birch
bark for containers, canoes, and housing. 
Corn is grown for food and the husks woven into mats and containers;
palmetto leaves are woven into baskets and used as roofing. What dolls are made
of tells us much about the natural resources available to the creators."

Cornhusk Doll, Seneca, 1900/1925, From the collection of: The Mashantucket Pequot Museum & Research Center
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Doll, Great Lakes, 1800/1900, From the collection of: The Mashantucket Pequot Museum & Research Center
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Palmetto Doll, Seminole, 1950/1960, From the collection of: The Mashantucket Pequot Museum & Research Center
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"The Houma people of Louisiana have made dolls from Spanish moss for a
long time. To process the moss, artist Janie Verret Luster explains, 

“The old
way of (curing the Spanish moss) was to put it in the Bayou … taking away the air
supply it would start to die and then after … two or three weeks … submerged in the
water, you would take it out and put it on the banks of the Bayou in a good
sunny location and the sun would dry (it) ... that grey would eventually fall
off ... it takes anywhere from … six to nine months … for it to turn completely
black.”"

Adeline, Mary Verret & Janie M. Verret Luster, 1980/1990, From the collection of: The Mashantucket Pequot Museum & Research Center
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Paul, Mary Verret & Janie M. Verret Luster, 1980/1990, From the collection of: The Mashantucket Pequot Museum & Research Center
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Josephine, Mary Verret & Janie M. Verret Luster, 1980/1990, From the collection of: The Mashantucket Pequot Museum & Research Center
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Marie Jeannie, Mary Verret & Janie M. Verret Luster, 1980/1990, From the collection of: The Mashantucket Pequot Museum & Research Center
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Pierre Cherie, Mary Verret & Janie M. Verret Luster, 1980/1990, From the collection of: The Mashantucket Pequot Museum & Research Center
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Pauline, Mary Verret & Janie M. Verret Luster, 1980/1990, From the collection of: The Mashantucket Pequot Museum & Research Center
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"Môyákanah | Clothes

Most Native doll makers dress their creations in traditional clothing –
clothing they are familiar with and that reflect their culture. Every part of
the clothing is made in miniature detail, from the use of Native tanned hides
and wool trade cloth to intricate bead and porcupine quill embroidery.  Sometimes, small versions of everyday items
such as bags, pouches, jewelry, hunting tools, and cradleboards accompany the
dolls."

Tea Doll, Yvonne Bégin, 1997, From the collection of: The Mashantucket Pequot Museum & Research Center
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Salteaux Woman, Lezley Two Bears (Eastern Cherokee/Connecticut River Indian/Innu), 1999/1999, From the collection of: The Mashantucket Pequot Museum & Research Center
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Iroquois Woman Doll, Lynn Antaya (Micmac), 1999/1999, From the collection of: The Mashantucket Pequot Museum & Research Center
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Dene Doll with Baby, Sarah Hardisty, 1997/1997, From the collection of: The Mashantucket Pequot Museum & Research Center
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Dene Doll, Sarah Hardisty, 1997/1997, From the collection of: The Mashantucket Pequot Museum & Research Center
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"“[The clothes on my dolls are] similar to what my great grandmother
would have worn back in the olden days … she always wore the skirts … and the
blouse.” 

Janie Varret Luster (Houma)"

Doll, c. 1900, 1900/1900, From the collection of: The Mashantucket Pequot Museum & Research Center
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Ojibwa Doll, 1870/1900, From the collection of: The Mashantucket Pequot Museum & Research Center
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Cornhusk Doll, 1990s, Debbie Doxtator (Bay of Plenty Mohawk from the Grand Territory), 1990/2000, From the collection of: The Mashantucket Pequot Museum & Research Center
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Doll, late 19th to early 20th c., 1880/1920, From the collection of: The Mashantucket Pequot Museum & Research Center
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"I know some people like to have dolls made in certain styles and
dresses because someone that they loved … had passed on so they use them as a
picture … to remind them of this event or this person … and I think that … would
probably be, going back, to historical times where they didn’t have cameras and
they didn’t have anything to remind them of something that might have happened
or a loved one … and I would imagine a doll would have taken the place of that
picture. 

Debra Doxtater (Mohawk)"

Huron Doll, Woman, 1840/1870, From the collection of: The Mashantucket Pequot Museum & Research Center
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Huron Doll, Man, 1840/1870, From the collection of: The Mashantucket Pequot Museum & Research Center
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"Uyuhtôqatash | Stories

Stories are everywhere – even dolls have stories to tell. Some tell
ancient stories of Creation while others honor important community members from
the past and present.  Still other dolls
have stories that pass on wisdom and traditions. Through dolls we learn and
remember important lessons and people."

The Mojave Doll, Norge Betty Barrackman (Mojave), 1997, From the collection of: The Mashantucket Pequot Museum & Research Center
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"Melissa Tantaquidgeon Zobel (Mohegan) shared this story about her uncle, Harold Tantaquidgeon and his guardian dolls, which he carved out of wood.

“Harold was always very concerned with protecting the Tantaquidgeon Museum in a spiritual and physical sense. He took his job of protecting the museum with guardian dolls and other forms of protection very seriously. These dolls are not play things, his dolls are not toys for children, his dolls were much more serious and they were dolls with a job to do.”"

Molly Molasses (Mary Pelagie), Ruth Francis (Penobscot), 2010, From the collection of: The Mashantucket Pequot Museum & Research Center
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"Tôn Nutuyeemun | What We Do

Doll
makers take inspiration from the world around them, often posing their dolls in
ways that reflect Native cultural traditions. Some dolls show activities,
including hunting, fishing, trapping, and preparing meals. Other dolls
celebrate the importance of music and dance in Native lives. Our dolls reflect
important cultural activities that make us who we are as Native people."

Cornhusk Doll, Mohawk, Ken Skye, 1997, From the collection of: The Mashantucket Pequot Museum & Research Center
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“Men’s Eastern Traditional” Doll, Denise A. Lowe-Williams "Strong Feather", 2011, From the collection of: The Mashantucket Pequot Museum & Research Center
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Cornhusk Doll, Oneida, Tina Chrisjohn-Wyant, 1998, From the collection of: The Mashantucket Pequot Museum & Research Center
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Dancing Cornhusk Doll, Mohawk, Ken Skye, 1997, From the collection of: The Mashantucket Pequot Museum & Research Center
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Pequot Museum Educational Powwow, 2013, From the collection of: The Mashantucket Pequot Museum & Research Center
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"Why are some Native American dolls
made without faces? 

Many
tribes have stories about why some dolls are made with no faces. The stories
vary but all have important lessons. 

Some Native people believe that dolls without faces encourage children to imagine all sorts of possibilities.  Other lessons include to not judge others by our differences but appreciate our similarities, and to teach about the dangers of vanity and forgetting your responsibilities."

Cornhusk Doll, Onondaga, 1900/1925, From the collection of: The Mashantucket Pequot Museum & Research Center
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"The
Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) have different stories around the lesson of vanity. 

One is that
the cornhusk doll was created in order to bring happiness to the children. Everywhere
she went the people told her how beautiful she was. The cornhusk doll began
spending too much time admiring her reflection in the still waters of ponds and
puddles. She spent so much time gazing at her face that she forgot about her
primary duty – to bring happiness to the children, and this angered the
Creator. She did not heed the warnings of the Creator to stop admiring herself
and so her face was taken away."

"“I always wanted to draw a face on the cornhusk, but (my father) wouldn’t let us.  It wasn’t until years later that my dad was teaching at a school in Yonkers, up in the Bronx, and he brought in our cornhusk dolls, and one of the kids asked him about the cornhusk doll and how come there’s no face, and I remember him telling them that it was because we are all made different.  When you have two cornhusk dolls and they can’t see each other, then they would think they were the same.” 

Willow Casanova (Mashantucket Pequot)"

Clay No-Face Doll, Jessica Wyant, 2003, From the collection of: The Mashantucket Pequot Museum & Research Center
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