Laurance S. Rockefeller purchased the David T. Vernon collection in 1972 and transferred ownership to Grand Teton National Park four years later. For more than 40 years, the Colter Bay Indian Arts Museum in the park, displayed and housed a large part of the collection. Currently, the collection is undergoing conservation work at the Western Archaeological Conservation Center (WACC) in Tucson, AZ.
Work includes examination, photography, construction of custom mounts, stabilization and repair. More than 60 objects have returned to exhibits at the Colter Bay and Craig Thomas visitor centers. One day, a new museum will house a rotating selection of these incredible items. We invite you to explore the spectacular American Indian craftwork of the David T. Vernon Collection.
The Decorated Horse
Pad Saddle (1890/1910) by CreeGrand Teton National Park, National Park Service
This saddle may have derived from a Spanish- Mexican pack saddle made of hay stuffed into two cushions. This type of saddle with floral patterning was used by both men and women. Produced by Plains Cree and Plains Ojibwa, it became popular as a trade item to the Blackfeet and Sioux.
Woman’s Saddle (1875/1900) by CrowGrand Teton National Park, National Park Service
Highly prized, this graceful and ornamental women’s saddle has been derived from the Spanish Moor style, and adapted to native materials and modified to suit the taste of the women of the Northern Plains, Columbia River Plateau and some Great Basin tribes. The decorated saddle, beaded stirrups, bridle, girth, martingale, and crupper were used on dress occasions on women’s horses. Crow women today still dress their horses in finery to ride in the parades during the annual Crow Fair in Crow Agency, Montana.
Headstall (1890/1910) by Dakota SiouxGrand Teton National Park, National Park Service
In the early 1800s, Spanish horses often came to their new owner with a bridle. When the original leather wore out, replacements were often decorated to their preferences. Later, the Plains Indian headstalls were elaborately decorated with quillwork, beads, brass sequins, and yarn. Similarly decorated headstalls were, and still are, used in parades.
Horse Head Ornament (1890/1910) by CrowGrand Teton National Park, National Park Service
The Crow were superb horsemen and historically were successful at stealing horses from their traditional enemy the Sioux. The beadwork displayed on this horse head ornament is considered a classic style of the era between 1875 and 1900. The Crow people are renowned for their beautiful beadwork. Many horse trappings are decoratively beaded still today and can be enjoyed during the annual Crow Fair in eastern Montana. The horse head ornament is a decorative piece attached to the headstall for parade.
Rope (1875/1900) by FlatheadGrand Teton National Park, National Park Service
Before the arrival of the horse to North America the Plains Indian tribes used strips of bison leather and other natural materials to create rope. This rope is made from four strands of braided horsehair with the ends wrapped in red and blue trade cloth with lines of light blue and white seed beads. The horsehair is featured in its natural black state and also dyed yellow.
Horse Hair Lariat (1890/1910) by BlackfeetGrand Teton National Park, National Park Service
Lariats were made of bison hair, horse hair, and bison rawhide, in both braided and twisted techniques. This was used as an all-purpose rope. Strands of black and dyed yellow coarse horse hair (from the tail) diagonally twisted around a central core of four strands of chain-stitched hair.
Quirt (1880/1890) by BlackfeetGrand Teton National Park, National Park Service
The quirt was made and used by equestrian Indian tribes of the Plains. A quirt is a short riding whip consisting of a handle, wrist strap and lash. The beaded handle (peyote stitch) is typical of Southern Plains style.
Saddle Bag (1875/1900) by Yankton SiouxGrand Teton National Park, National Park Service
Beaded saddle bags like this were thrown over a horse’s back and secured behind the saddle. The women of Northern Plains, Columbia River Plateau, and some Great Basin tribes still use decorative saddle bags like this during annual parade celebrations and rodeos.
Saddle Cloth (Saddle Blanket) (1875/1900) by DakotaGrand Teton National Park, National Park Service
Saddle blankets were only used in parades. Today, the Sioux nation still uses them during the annual summer celebration. This blanket is comprised of four long beaded panels, horizontally sewn onto canvas. The saddle blanket and back of the beaded panels are canvas. The beaded panels are sewn in geometric and heart designs. On each corner the long panels are edged with maroon and white calico and buckskin fringe and hawk bells. The four tabs hanging down from the blanket symbolize an animal’s four legs.
Buckskin Dress (1865/1885) by DakotaGrand Teton National Park, National Park Service
Sioux women were known for their signature buckskin dresses with fully beaded yoke. Often the beaded shoulder background was blue, representing a lake reflecting a blue sky. Cross patterns represent either the four directions or the morning star. The U-shaped design positioned at the center of the breast is reminiscent of the tail of an animal. This can also represent the turtle which possessed power associated with a woman’s capacity for childbirth and the natural cycles related to femininity.
Man’s Shirt (1870/1890) by CrowGrand Teton National Park, National Park Service
The best known article of clothing for a Plains Indian male was his dress shirt. Shirts were highly decorated with paint and small bunches of hair. Quilled or beaded strips are sewn over the shoulders and along the sleeves with long fringes and ermine skins attached. Decorative shirts of honor were worn during tribal social and political events, often by men of importance in their tribes.
Child’s Jacket (1875/1900) by Southern ArapahoGrand Teton National Park, National Park Service
In the 1880s and 1890s, Plains women broke from their traditional pattern fashion to European styles. Jackets of this style were frequently commissioned by soldiers and settlers. The binary shirts with closed sleeves are a direct adaption from their traditional pattern to European fashion. Jackets of this style were worn by men and boys.
Child’s Dress (1880/1900) by CheyenneGrand Teton National Park, National Park Service
Cheyenne dresses for younger women were made of the skins of deer, mountain sheep, pronghorn, or elk. In contrast, older women’s dresses were made from buffalo cow or upper part of lodge (tipi) covering. Southern Cheyenne women developed the three skin dress. The yoke is constructed of two pieces of hide: one for the front and the other for the back. They are sewn together along the sides and fringed. The skirt is sewn to the yoke.
The classic Cheyenne dress has three wide horizontal beaded strips across each shoulder, along the front and back. The yoke is painted between the wide beaded strips with yellow pigment. The hem on each side has rectangular “tabs” hanging with three rows of decorated elements of metal tinklers. The attention to detail in making this dress embodies the Cheyenne woman’s philosophy; “Dress your daughter as you would dress yourself and she will wear it with dignity, honor and respect.”
Child’s Shirt (1875/1900) by WinnebagoGrand Teton National Park, National Park Service
A fine example of the use of trade goods, this child’s shirt is made from hand-sewn cotton fabric decorated with German silver discs. Red and brown ribbon was sewn across the chest and along the neck and front opening. Fabric shirts and blouses were made during the early 1800s as these materials became available through trade. Many trade items such as metal buttons and discs were made of silver metal called “German silver,” a mixture of nickel, copper and zinc.
Wearing Blanket (1870/1890) by Nez PerceGrand Teton National Park, National Park Service
Native tanned bison robes were commonly used prior to 1840. When a bison was taken, it was skinned and the hide was split down the center to allow fleshing and tanning. The hide was later re-sewn and a narrow strip adorned with porcupine quill work and circular pendants was sewn over the seam. With the arrival of trade goods, beads replaced quillwork. Beaded blanket strips were made, such as this spectacular robe, perhaps the centerpiece of the exhibit.
The three circular pendants are made with a rarely seen technique, porcupine quills wrapped around horse hair. This technique was occasionally used by the Hidatsa, Arikara, Mandan, Nez Perce, and Crow tribes.
The Eastern, Great Lakes, and Midwestern Tribes were more commonly known for loom beadwork. This artistic craft is uncommon among some Northern Plains Indian Tribes. Today loom beadwork is the most common technique to create fancy dance regalia, dance belts and other large beaded pieces.
The entire belt is sewn sinew (tendon). There seems to be no native prototype for this panel belt made entirely of trade goods. It may simply represent one of the unexpected ways new materials were used. However their origin, panel belts were common throughout the Northern Plains, Columbia River Plateau and Great Basin.
Plains, Columbia River Plateau, and Great Basin women always belted their dresses. Earlier soft hide belts were gradually replaced by highly stylized beaded belts made of heavy harness leather. Both men and women wore beaded belts on occasion.
Traditionally braid holders were worn on special occasions, one on each braid. Braid holders were constructed by sewing applique beadwork on canvas using cotton thread.
Man’s Vest (1890/1910) by Northern CheyenneGrand Teton National Park, National Park Service
The European vest was adapted by many of the native Northern Plains people during the late nineteenth century. Many decorated and beaded vests are worn on special occasions.
The Great Lakes have long had a reputation for making loom-woven beadwork utilizing distinctive and complex geometric patterns in a wide variety of colors. Large bandolier bags, wide sashes, and garters were worn by the men during dress occasions. The workmanship and intricacy of this pair of garters are fine examples created from the Great Lakes region.
The Shoshone people would wear rope chokers like this around their necks for special occasions.
Gauntlet Gloves (1920/1940) by ShoshoneGrand Teton National Park, National Park Service
Northern Plains, Columbia River Plateau, and Great Basin tribes adapted the custom of wearing skin gloves with long, flaring cuffs from army officers stationed at military posts during the last quarter of the nineteenth century. Gauntlet gloves featuring beaded cuffs were also commissioned by army officers. Prominent Indian men wore gauntlet gloves for parades and dress occasions.
Mirrors in all sizes were a very popular trade item, desired by both men and women. Mirrors were used for signaling and reflecting light. During social dances, a dancer might intimidate competitors by reflecting light into their eyes. Mirrors were also used for projection of spiritual power. This beautifully created mirror case was worn around the neck.
Infants born between 1870 and 1900 were living in a time of change—from hunting and living off the land to settling in one place. Mothers began dressing their children in settler style clothing. This baby bonnet with flag motifs exemplifies the blending of cultures. Flag patterns were popular during this period for the Plains, Columbia River Plateau, and Eastern Great Basin tribes.
This stiff and heavy baby’s bonnet is an example of cultural adaptation from the settlers’ baby bonnets made of printed fabric. Mothers and grandmothers beaded cradleboards, amulets, moccasins, and baby bonnets with a sense of elegance.
Moccasins (1880/1900) by DakotaGrand Teton National Park, National Park Service
This pair of fully beaded moccasins is made from the smoke flap of an old tipi. Such skins were thoroughly smoked from years of use resulting in a very soft and durable material.
These tiny moccasins required skill and patience to create. Multi-colored beads adorn two pieces of buckskin. The lane stitch helps to attach several beads at once.
Cheyenne and Sioux women beaded the soles of infant moccasins for their own children, and in later years, for their grandchildren. Moccasins with full beading were not for everyday use.
Woman’s Boots (1835/1855) by KiowaGrand Teton National Park, National Park Service
These woman’s boots extended to the thigh and tie just below the knee with the top flap folded down. Women’s boots of this type were popular in the mid-nineteenth century on the Southern Plains with Kiowa, Comanche, Southern Arapaho, and Cheyenne people. This boot style is still worn occasionally for special occasions.
This classic pair of fully beaded Sioux moccasins and leggings were made and worn for special gatherings. Contemporary moccasins and leggings are still worn today for social gatherings such as Pow-Wows.
Fully beaded moccasins, such as this child’s pair, were primarily made by Cheyenne, Sioux, Arapaho, and Assiniboine tribes.
Moccasins (1870/1890) by CheyenneGrand Teton National Park, National Park Service
These hard sole buckskin moccasins feature fringe on the heel and along one side of the upper or vamp. The beadwork includes diagonal bands and a chevron pattern in cobalt blue, greasy yellow, rose whitehearts, light blue, on white background. The buckskin is stained yellow with a stripe of red paint down the vamp.
Women’s Leggings (1890/1910) by Brule SiouxGrand Teton National Park, National Park Service
Five basic wardrobe items make up a Plains Indian woman’s wardrobe—dress, moccasins, leggings, belt, and shawl. Moccasins and leggings were always worn together by Plains Indian women. It was considered improper to appear without leggings. Leggings could be fully or partially beaded.
These moccasins have cow rawhide soles. After the buffalo herds vanished, Plains Indians became farmers and cattle ranchers. Cow rawhide was used increasingly in place of bison.
Woman’s Leggings (1885/1900) by Dakota SiouxGrand Teton National Park, National Park Service
These leggings are sewn with sinew and beaded on buckskin. The geometric design in royal blue, green, greasy yellow, red, and Bodmer blue stands out on a white background. Along the side, a beaded strip features triangle design in royal blue, greasy yellow, red white-hearts and green. Beaded leggings were worn for special gatherings.
Mothers and grandmothers took great pride in their beadwork, evidenced by highly decorated dresses, shirts, and moccasins. With the birth of a baby, a grandmother would make a pair of fully beaded moccasins as a labor of love and a joyful gift.
Sioux, Cheyenne, and Arapaho tribes used this distinctive triangle design symbolizing either mountains or tipis. The high cuff sewn to the moccasin is known as an “anklewrap.”
Moccasins (1875/1900) by BlackfeetGrand Teton National Park, National Park Service
During the fur trade era of the early 1800s, the British Hudson Bay Company, based in Canada, assigned Eastern Woodland and Great Lakes Indian men to the Northern Rocky Mountains to trap beaver for hats popular in Europe and the eastern U.S. Plains Blackfeet men started wearing European style tailored jackets featuring beaded floral patterns on the cuffs and epaulets.
Their clothing made quite an impression and by the mid-1800s, Blackfeet women were adorning clothing with floral beadwork like these moccasins.
Girl’s Legging (1890/1900) by CrowGrand Teton National Park, National Park Service
During the fur trade era, the Crow were successful traders. These leggings were constructed from traded materials including the red cloth and glass beads. Decorated and beaded leggings are worn for special occasions by the Crow people.
Moccasins (1870/1890) by Southern CheyenneGrand Teton National Park, National Park Service
This particular style of moccasin was made and worn by the Kiowa, Comanche, and Cheyenne tribes of the Southern Plains. The moccasins were painted with yellow and red ochre and often fringed with a narrow band of beadwork on the vamp and heel.
Grand Teton National Park Staff
Grand Teton Association
Grand Teton National Park Foundation
Western Archeological and Conservation Center
Harpers Ferry Center