Father of Indian Statistics: Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis

“Statistics must have a clearly defined purpose, one aspect of which is scientific advancement and the other human welfare and national development.”

Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis (1950)Indian Statistical Institute

of Indian Statistics

Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis is also known as the father of Indian Statistics. He was a physicist by training, a statistician by instinct and a planner by conviction. His contributions were massive on the academic side as the builder of the Indian Statistical Institute, organizer of the Indian statistical systems, pioneer in the applications of statistical techniques to practical problems, architect of the Indian Second Five Year Plan, and much more. Statistical science was a virgin field and practically unknown in India before the twenties. Developing statistics was like exploring a new territory. It needed a pioneer and an adventurer like him, with his indomitable courage and tenacity to fight all opposition, clear all obstacles, and throw open wide pastures of new knowledge for the advancement of science and society. 

Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis view about statisticsIndian Statistical Institute

Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis perceived statistics ‘as a universal tool of inductive inference, research in natural and social sciences, and technological applications’ and ‘as a key technology for increasing the efficiency of human efforts in the widest sense’.

Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis at the age of two. (1895)Indian Statistical Institute

Early life

Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis was born into a family well established in Calcutta (Kolkata), who were relatively wealthy and whose members were enterprising, adventurous, imbued with liberal Brahmo Samaj traditions, and active in all Bengali life.

210, Cornwallis Street, Calcutta, where Prasanta Chandra was born.Indian Statistical Institute

He was born on 29th June 1893 at 210 Cornwallis Street (his grandfather’s house) as the elder son among two sons and four daughters of Probodh Chandra Mahalanobis and Nirodbasini Devi.

Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis at the age of seven. (1900)Indian Statistical Institute

The family background and the contacts he had with the great intellectuals and social reformers of Bengal cut him out for the active life he had to lead over the next seventy years.

Gurucharan Mahalanobis, Grandfather of Prasanta Chandra MahalanobisIndian Statistical Institute


Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis' actual surname was “Bandyopadhaya”. Possibly six generations before, Guru Charan Mahalanobis started using the surname Mahalanobis as he was appointed to keep the accounts of land and land revenue of Mahal of ancient Bengal. They knew him as “Nauvice”. In Persian “nauvice” means scribe of Mahal (A Mughual administrative unit), so his surname “Mahalanobis” came from the concept of “Mahal” and “Nauvice”. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis’s roots were in Panchasar village, now in Vikrampur, Bangladesh. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis's grandfather was Guru Charan Mahalanobis who was follower of Sadharan Brahmo Samaj.

Probodh Chandra Mahalanobis, Father of Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis, From the collection of: Indian Statistical Institute
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His father was Probodh Chandra Mahalanobis, a pioneering entrepreneur, who successfully ran a dealership in sports goods, gramophones and records. Through this efforts, the first successful recording of Rabindranath Tagore’s voice was made in 1924.

Nirodbasini Devi, Mother of Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis., From the collection of: Indian Statistical Institute
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Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis's mother was Nirodbasini Devi, who was the sister of Dr. Nilratan Sircar, the eminent physician, educationist, and industrialist of that time.

Brahmo Boys’ School (1904)Indian Statistical Institute


He started his education at Brahmo Boys’ School, which was founded by his grandfather Guru Charan Mahalanobis in 1904.

Prasanta Chandra with his friends just before he left for England in 1913 (1913)Indian Statistical Institute

Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis earned a Bachelor degree in Science with Honours in Physics from the Calcutta University under Presidency College in 1912, before he sailed to England and joined Cambridge University

The Indian Daily news, 23rd June, 1915 (1915-06-23)Indian Statistical Institute

He obtained Mathematics Tripos part I in 1914, and Physics Tripos part II in 1915 from Cambridge University.

Standing from right- H.O.William, W.I. Saxton, unidentified person, Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis, F.B. Johnston, G.A.Lupton, A.W.Neal, E. H. Toulmin, and E.A.Cameau; Degree day, Kings College, Cambridge, 1915 (1915)Indian Statistical Institute

As a student, Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis never confined himself in his subject books. He was very interested in various subjects like amateur astronomy, philosophy, architecture, and psychology. Around this time, Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis met with pioneer of Mathematics Srinivasa Ramanujan in Cambridge. He had his initiation in Statistics in 1915 through Biometrika, the journal founded by Karl Pearson.

Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis with Prof. Peake and others Physics Department, Presidency College, CalcuttaIndian Statistical Institute

Early career

He first joined Presidency College in 1915 as a temporary Professor. In 1922 he became Asst. Professor of Physics and taught Physics for 33 years (1915-1948). He was also the Principal of Presidency College for a few years and held the post of Meteorologist in the Alipore Observatory in Calcutta from 1922 to 1926.

Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis and his wife Nirmal Kumari MahalanobisIndian Statistical Institute

Life companion

Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis married Nirmal Kumari (nicknamed Rani), who was the daughter of Puritan Brahmo leader and educationist of Bengal Heramba Chandra Moitra. 

Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis and Nirmal Kumari MahalanobisIndian Statistical Institute

Nirmal Kumari was the person who stood by the Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis in all his struggles, helped him in all his endeavours and exercised a great influence on his life.

P.C.Mahalanobis and Mrs. Mahalanobis in Ankara, Turkey, November 1948 (1948)Indian Statistical Institute

She often accompanied Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis on his frequent tours abroad. Their companionship lasted for 49 years until the death of Mahalanobis.

Prasanta Chandra, Nirmal kumari Mahalanobis with Rabindranath Tagore, 1925 (1925)Indian Statistical Institute

Influence of great minds

Rabindranath Tagore, Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis, and Nirmal Kumari Mhahalanobis shared a unique relationship. Rabindranath Tagore used to take a keen interest in Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis’s statistical work from the very beginning. Even his career in statistics was very largely influenced by the poet.  

Brajendra Nath Seal, Prof. of Philosophy, University of Calcutta introduced Prasanta Chandra to actual statistical analysis for the first time.Indian Statistical Institute

When Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis expressed his interest to work on Statistics, he approached Rabindranath Tagore for his kind opinion. Tagore sent him to meet with Dr. Brajendranath Seal (B.N.Seal). He was further encouraged to engage in statistical research by B. N. Seal who asked him to take up a certain statistical exercise with respect to the examination result of Calcutta University.

Statistical Laboratory, Presidency College, Calcutta.Indian Statistical Institute

Establishment of Indian Statistical Institute

At the time Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis was a Professor of Physics at Presidency College, he was highly involved in the work of statistics. He set up the Statistical laboratory in the baker laboratory of Presidency College, Calcutta, in the early 1920s. In the initial phase, his statistical research was in anthropometry, in meteorology and in problems of flood control in North Bengal and Orissa. 

Indian Statistical InstituteIndian Statistical Institute

On 17th December, 1931, Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis set up the Indian Statistical Institute for advanced research and training in statistics. Later during the 1950s, ISI shifted to the present premises at Baranagar, a suburb of Kolkata, West Bengal.

Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru viewing a model of the ISI building, 1953 (1953)Indian Statistical Institute

In 1932, the Institute was located in a small portion of the Physics Department of the Presidency College but by 1972 the Institute had several large building of its own to provide working space for research and training in diverse subjects such as: anthropometry, biochemistry, botany, computer science, crop science, economics, human genetics, precensus, psychometry, sociology, and statistics. The Institute's activities were not confined within Calcutta but spread all over the India.

Portrait of C.R.RAOIndian Statistical Institute

While Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis struggled against many odds in his bid to develop statistics as a science in India, he was lucky to receive whole hearted cooperation and help from a number of people. He had a special ability for locating talents.

From the very beginning of the Institute he was assisted by a number of young and talented researchers, namely Harish Chandra Sinha, Raj Chandra Bose, Samarendra Nath Roy, and Keshvan Raghavan Nair. In 1941 came Calyampudi Radhakrishna Rao. That Mahalanobis was not wrong in his selection of comrades-in-arms was evident from the fact that many of his early associates earned international fame for themselves and the Institute for their outstanding contributions to statistics.

J.B.S.Haldane speaking at the degree course opening ceremony at the Institute, 16th August, 1960 (1960-08-16)Indian Statistical Institute

Indian Statistical Institution started courses of study leading to the degrees of Bachelor of Statistics and Master of Statistics from July, 1960 and also made arrangement for the award of Degrees Ph.D. and D.Sc. in Statistics.

Academician A.N.Kolmogorov, S.N.Bose, Prasanta Chandra at a special convocation held to confer Honorary degree of Doctor of Science of the ISI to KolmogorovIndian Statistical Institute

The First Convocation of the Indian Statistical Institute was held in the mango-grove of the Institute on 12 February 1962.

The event of first convocation was marked with the conferment of Honorary Doctor of Science to five eminent people: Professor Satyendra Nath Bose, Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher, Sri Jawaharlal Nehru, Academician Andrey Nikolaevich Kolmogorov and Dr. Walter Andrew Shewhart.

During the first convocation, the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy was conferred to two students, Kalyanapuram Ranga Parthasarathy and Jayaram Sethuraman, and Master of Statistics Degree to Narasimha Sreenivasa Iyengar, Vasant Tukaram Korde, Tares Maitra, Manjula Mukhopadhyay, Ganesan Parthasarathy, Kadiyala Koteswara Rao, and Paras Nath Singh.

Mahalanobis Distance- the major tools widely used in taxonomical classification even today.Indian Statistical Institute

Contribution to the field of Statistics

The anthropometric studies led to the formulation of D2- Statistic, known in statistical literature as Mahalanobis Distance, which has proved to be a valuable tool not only in taxonomy but in many other fields including economics and geology. A rich field of research in multivariate analysis opened up; Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher (R.A.Fisher) accepted this concept by giving it the name ‘Mahalanobis D-square’ or ‘Mahalanobis distance’,

Report on Rainfall and Floods in North Bengal (1870-1922) (1870)Indian Statistical Institute

Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis was again called upon to tackle the problem of flooding after two devastating floods, one in North Bengal in 1922 and the other in Orissa in 1926. This led him to undertake extensive statistical studies of rainfall and floods in Bengal and Orissa covering a span of about sixty years. The studies yielded some of the basic calculations that were later used for the two hydro-electric and irrigation projects in Hirakud and Damodar Valley.

Prasanta Chandra’s first paper on statistics, published in the Records of the Indian Museum, Vol.23, 1922. (1922)Indian Statistical Institute

Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis’ first systematic work was on a statistical study of the anthropometric measurements of Anglo-Indians in Calcutta and his first paper was on “Anthropological Observations on the Anglo-Indian of Calcutta Part-I Analysis of Male Stature’urt”, which was published in the records of the Indian Museum in 1922.

Sankhya- the Indian journal of Statistics started in 1933 (1933)Indian Statistical Institute

Sankhya, The Indian Journal of Statistics, founded by Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis in 1933 is the official publication of Indian Statistical Institute. Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis explained his reasons for choosing the name Sankhya. In his words: "We believe that the idea underlying this integral concept of statistics finds adequate expression in the ancient Indian word Sankhya. In Sanskrit the usual meaning is ‘number’, but the original root meaning was ‘determinate knowledge"

He was the editor of Sankhya from 1933 to 1972.

Extraction of fiber from the jute bundlesIndian Statistical Institute

Then came the epoch-making investigation on the technique of large scale sample surveys, with which Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis’ name will always be associated. Systematic work on the surveying of agriculture crops began in 1937, which culminated in a large scale sample survey of the acreage and yield of jute crop in 1941. It covered the whole province of Bengal and was extended to all important crops in both Bengal and Bihar in 1943.

Worker collecting sample from the fieldIndian Statistical Institute

This was followed by sample surveys for collecting socio-economic data, such as public preference. A large number of surveys were conducted from 1937-1950 in Bengal for collecting information on crops and socio-economic data, which gave opportunities for improving the design of sample surveys and for gaining experience in the collection of data from the field.

Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis with R.A.Fisher in Amrapali, 1945 (1945)Indian Statistical Institute

During the sample census on jute crop in Bengal, Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis insisted on the use of sampling methodology. But the Government officials had no idea about sampling and the survey was on the verge of being abandoned altogether.

At this juncture, R. A. Fisher came to India in 1938 and in a memorandum submitted to the Viceroy, he strongly recommended the use of sampling methodology in India. At last a large scale sample survey of the area under jute for the whole province of Bengal was undertaken in 1940.

Archival video of P.C.Mahalanobis's visit to an Indian village for a sample survey.Indian Statistical Institute

Several hurdles had to be crossed in convincing the administrators that gaps in national income statistics could be filled through data obtained by sampling, and that there would be a need for continuous collection of information to assess the progress of economic development and to make policy decisions.

Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis won the battle and the National Sample Survey was established in 1950. It is a continuing survey in which information is collected year by year with the help of a whole time field organization, spread all over India, and which provides periodic estimates on social and economic factors affecting the nation economy.

Prasanta Chandra with Central and State statisticians during a reception at his New Delhi residence , 8, King George Avenue, 3rd December 1954 (1954-12-03)Indian Statistical Institute

A Central Statistical Unit was established by the Government of India in 1949 to work under the technical guidance of Prof.Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis as Honorary Statistical Adviser to the cabinet. For more than two years this unit was entirely staffed from and run by ISI. After two years the Central Statistical Organizations was formed for coordinating all statistical activities of the Government.

P.C.Mahalanobis at the conference on standardization and Quality Control at ISI (Presidency College Premises) 08.02.1948 (1948-02-08)Indian Statistical Institute

After meeting with Dr. Walter Shewart, who was known as the 'Father of Statistical Quality Control', Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis wrote to the Government of India in 1942 pointing out the advantages of using statistical quality control methods, particularly in the industries. As a consequence, the Indian Statistical Institute took initiative in spreading the use of quality control methods in industry by establishing Statistical Quality Control units in different parts of India since 1953.

Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis delivering lecture on fractile graphical analysis, 1958 (1958)Indian Statistical Institute

Even when Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis was working on his planning models, he had not stopped giving new ideas in statistical methodology. In 1958 he found a simple but very effective technique known as Fractile Graphical Analysis.

The first Electronic Analogue Computer designed by Samarendra Kumar Mitra and constructed by ISI in 1953. (1953)Indian Statistical Institute

Start of a new era: introduction of computers

Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalnobis was one of the first people in the country to recognize the importance of machines – mechanical, electrical as well as electronic – to make fast, accurate and complicated calculations with masses of figures. In the 1950s, Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis arranged to have a large number of electromechanical data processing machines from IBM; the Hollerith and the Power Samas varieties were installed to process NSS data. Through his initiative in 1953, a small analog computer was designed and built in the Institute.

HEC-2M Hollerith Electronic Digital Computer, 1956, 1956, From the collection of: Indian Statistical Institute
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In 1956, Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis arranged for the installation of a British made digital computer, the HEC-2M, Hollerith – Electronic Digital Computer, the first of its kind to be in operation anywhere in India.

A front-view of the Soviet electronic computer, URAL which was obtained by the Institute as a gift from the USSR through the United Nations, a team of soviet experts installed it in 1958., 1958, From the collection of: Indian Statistical Institute
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During 1955, the USSR Government had offered the Institute a big electronic digital computer called URAL through the UNTAA (United Nations Technical Aid Administration). The URAL computer was received in March 1958 and installed on 20 December 1958 in the Institute for the processing of statistical data by the Soviet engineers who handed it over for use in February 1959.

Prof. & Mrs. Neils Bohr were shown round the Electronic Division of ISI, January, 1960, 1960, From the collection of: Indian Statistical Institute
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By 1959-60, the Indian Statistical Institute became, for all practical purposes, a National Computer Centre for the country. It met the computational requirements for scientific problems in organizations like the Ministry of Defense, The Atomic Energy Commission, the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, and the Meteorology Department.

The Indian Statistical Institute – Jadavpur University (ISI-JU) computer was Commissioned by Shri.M.C.Chagla , then Union Minister of Education , at Jadavpur on 2nd April, 1966, 1966-04-02, From the collection of: Indian Statistical Institute
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The first solid state digital computer in India, ISIJU-1, was designed, developed and constructed by the engineers of the Institute in collaboration with the Jadavpur University in 1965.

Dinosaur Fossil at ISI.Indian Statistical Institute

Contribution of ISI: excavation of a dinosaur

In 1957, Prof. Prasanta Chandra  Mahalanobis invited Dr. Pamela Robinson of the University College London to the ISI to set up the Geological Studies Unit. The team under the leadership of Dr.Pamela Robinson discovered for the first time in India the fossil bones of the giant prehistoric lizard; the largest animal that lived on the earth.

Prasanta Chandra, C.R.Rao, Pamela Robinson, Alec J. Smith (Prof. of University College, London) K.B.Madhava and others studying in front of fossil bone of Dinosaur excavated by ISI team.Indian Statistical Institute

Over ten tons of bone material were collected from the Pranhita–Godavari valley and brought to Calcutta. The bones were assembled and later mounted in 1976, in record time into a full length skeleton of the dinosaur in the Geological Studies Unit. The skeleton was named Barapasaurus tagorie.

Prasanta Chandra and Jawaharlal Nehru at Amrapali.Indian Statistical Institute

Contribution to national development 

Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis played an important role in Indian National Economic Planning. He took major responsibility in drafting the Second Five Year Plan for India. He believed in perspective planning and used simple logical ideas in deriving an economic model for planning in a under developed country, like India.

Jawaharlal Nehru inaugurating studies relating to planning for national development at the institute, 3rd November, 1954 (1954-11-03)Indian Statistical Institute

As a member of the Planning Commission, he sold the idea of making large investments in heavy industries, setting aside other sectors of development, a policy which helped the country considerably in rapid industrialization.

Satyendranath Bose, Prasanta Chandra and Norbert Weiner (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA) at Amrapali Garden, 1953 (1953)Indian Statistical Institute

Dignitaries at ISI

The growing importance of the Institute was reflected in the continuous inflow of visitors, over a thousand leading scientists of the world visited the Indian Statistical Institute. Many of these scientists spent long periods of time at the institute and often stayed with Mahalanobis at his residence.

J.D.Bernal , Nirmal Kumari Frederic Joliot- Curie, Madame Irene Joliot-Curie and Prasanta Chandra during a visit in January 1950. (1950)Indian Statistical Institute

From 1937 to 1967 about six hundred leading scientists and economists of the world came to the Institute, among them were J.B.S. Haldane, Abraham Wald, J.K. Galbraith, Frederic Joliot-Curie, Madame Irene Joliot-Curie, Norbert Weiner, Chou-en-Lai, Prime Minister of China, Ho-chi-minh, and President of the People's Republic of Vietnam to name a few.

Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis delivering lecture at the Vatican City , Rome, 1963 (1963)Indian Statistical Institute

International liasions with ISI

 As the Indian Statistical Institute started earning international fame, Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis was becoming more and more preoccupied with assignments outside. Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis worked for international understanding and collaboration in scientific research with foreign scientists. 

Prasanta Chandra attending the United Nations Statistical Commission as Chairman, New York , 16th April- 3rd May, 1956 (1956-04-16)Indian Statistical Institute

Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis started going abroad from 1946 in connection with the work at the United Nations Statistical Commission in various capacities: as member; Vice-Chairman and Chairman; as its representative on the Population Commission in 1948; and as a member of drafting committee at the Regional Meeting of Statisticians.

P.C.Mahalanobis delivering his lecture in International House of Japan.Indian Statistical Institute

Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis attended all the sessions of the Statistical Commission from the Nuclear Session in February-June 1946, to the 16th session in October 1970—an unparalleled record.

Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis at the International Symposium on Higher Education, Moscow,1962. (1962)Indian Statistical Institute

Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis chaired the Conference of Statisticians of the United Nations Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East, ECAFE (now Economic and Statistical Commission for Asia and Pacific, ESCAP) in 1952.

P.C.Mahalanobis receiving an award (1959)Indian Statistical Institute

Awards and accolades 

Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis received a number of awards and honors in India and abroad for his outstanding and fundamental contribution to Statistics and Planning. 

Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis receiving the Mayor-of-Paris Award for exemplary work in Statistics, 1963. (1963)Indian Statistical Institute

He was elected as fellow of the:
- Royal Society of London in 1945,
- Chairman of the United Nations Sub- Commission on Statistical Sampling (five sessions- 1947-1951)
- Fellow of International Econometric Society (1951)
- Chairman of United Nations Statistical Commission (1954-1958)
- President of National Institute of Sciences of India (1957 and 1958)
- Fellow of American Statistical Association (1961)
- Fellow of World Academy of Art and Science (1963).

Prasanta Chandra receiving the Bulgarian Science Academy award, 1962 (1962)Indian Statistical Institute

Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalaonbis was honored with several awards:
-The Weldon Medal from Oxford University (1944),
- Sir Devaprasad Sarbadhikari Gold Medal from Calcutta University (1957),
- Gold Medal from Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences (1964),
- Durga Prasad Khaitan Memorial Gold Medal from Asiatic Society (1968),
- Srinivasa Ramanujam Gold Medal (1968),
- Honorary Deshikottama from Visva Bharati University (1961).

Photograph of the Padmavibhushan Certificate (1968-04-16)Indian Statistical Institute

In 1968, he was awarded the Padma Vibhushan, the second highest civilian award by the Republic of India for his contribution to science and services to the country.

He also received honorary doctorates from Calcutta University (1957), Sofi University (1961), Delhi University (1964) and Stockholm University (1966).

Prasanta Chandra MahalnobisIndian Statistical Institute

Prof. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis viewed statistics not as a branch of mathematics but as a technology. Mathematics and probability theory are only the means to promote the use of statistical methods in the world of reality. He shaped Indian Statistical Institute as a beacon of knowledge with commitment for national development and social welfare. He is still being remembered for the Mahalanobis Distance, a statistical measure, and for his great contribution in the large scale sample survey. He continues to inspire statisticians in India and around the world.

Credits: Story

P.C.Mahalanobis Memorial Museum & Archives; Reprography and Photography Unit;
Library, Documentation and Information Science Division

ISI Team
Co-ordinator: Dr. Kishor Chandra Satpathy
Photo Design & Restoration: Mr.Tapas Basu
Research & Compilation: Ms. Keya Das &
Ms. Kasturi Basu

Special thanks to Dr. Sanghamitra Bandyopadhyay,Director and Dr. Dipti Prasad Mukherjee,Deputy Director of Indian Statistical Institute in making this online exhibit possible.

Text References:
1. Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of The Royal Society,Volume 19,London,The Royal Society.
2. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis
by A. Mahalanobis, National Book Trust India,
New Delhi,1983.
3. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis A Biography by Ashok Rudra by Oxford University Press,1996

Credits: All media
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