Legacy of Islamic Science and Technology

Inventions that shed light to the world

At the museum, tools, device copies, models and models belonging to the history of Islamic science and technology are being exhibited. The collection was curated by Prof. Dr. Fuat Sezgin, honorary member of the Turkish Academy of Sciences and Frankfurt University Faculty. 

The Section of Astronomy

In this section, important observatories of the Islamic civilization, astrolabes, celestial globes, which are the most common instruments used in astronomy, and various measuring instruments used in observatories are exhibited.

Rey Observatory, Abdurrahman es Sufi's Celestial Globe, Vincenzo Coronelli's Celestial Globe, Ebū Saʿīd Ahmed b. Devices such as Muḥammed es-Siczī's Planetarium, Merağa observatory and observation instruments, and Biruni's Mechanical Astronomical Calendar are exhibited.

The Section of Clock and Time Technology

In this section, clock technologies developed in the Islamic world are exhibited. The collection includes water clocks, hourglasses, sundials, and mechanical clocks.

This section includes clocks that determine the time based on the position of the sun and the length of its shadow, such as sundials, water clocks, Cezeri's and Biruni's clocks, Takiyüddin's mechanical clocks, the Chandelier Clock for nighttime use, and the Andalusian-style twelve-door candle clock.

This section showcases maritime technologies developed in the Islamic world, such as the compass, ship models, and maps.

The Section of Combat Technology

The first centuries after Muslims appeared on the world history stage saw the development and invention of a variety of war techniques, including catapults, arrow launchers, firearms, and biological weapons, driven by conquest and expansion.

The Section of Medical History

The medical section exhibits nearly 200 medical instruments described in detail by the Andalusian physician Zehravi, known as Abulcasis in the West, who made surgery an independent science.

Zehravi, a leading physician of the Medieval Islamic World, is considered the Father of Surgery for his systematic classification of surgical instruments and pioneering surgical practices that laid the foundation for modern medicine.

The Section of Mines

Muslims, drawing on the mineral sciences of the Egyptian, Babylonian, Greek, and Roman periods, used many minerals in chemistry and medicine. This section exhibits a variety of mineral samples.

The Section of Physics

Beginning in the 8th century, Muslims made rapid scientific advances in all disciplines, including natural philosophy, or physics as it was then known.

This section exhibits tools described by the engineer Cezeri, the founder of robotics, in his book "Kitab-ül Hıyel," as well as other tools such as al-Biruni's pycnometer for measuring specific gravity, a screw pump, a six-piston pump, and a scissor-shaped lever.

The Section of Mathematics and Geometry

This section exhibits mathematical and geometric knowledge taken from the Greeks in the 8th century and developed by Islamic scientists, as well as the tools used for building, construction, and other measurements.

The Section of Architecture and Urbanization

This section exhibits models of the works of Mimar Sinan, the most important architect of the 16th century, as well as examples of hospitals and madrasahs that served Islamic Civilization until the 18th century and were exemplary for their time.

The Section of Chemistry and Optics

In the optics section, the works of Ibn al-Haytham, a great physicist who laid the foundations of the camera and photography, are exhibited. These works include a darkroom for observing moonlight, a device for observing light reflection, and a work describing the formation of the rainbow.

Muslim chemists, who played a major role in the development of modern chemistry, introduced observation and experimentation to the science and developed alembics, glass pipes, and test vessels for their work. This section exhibits samples of retorts and furnaces used in chemical processes.

The Section of Geography

This section also includes the World Map of Caliph al-Ma'mun and al-Idrisi, which demonstrates the advanced level of geographic knowledge in the Islamic Civilization; Biruni's latitude measuring device; and visuals of Piri Reis' maps.

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