Wheat flour, essential for bread

Flour can be made from all kinds of grain and even from other plants like lentils or chestnuts. But common wheat is the most widely used.

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Where does flour come from?

Flour can be made from all kinds of grain and even from other plants (like lentils, for example). However, common wheat is the most widely used thanks to the many different ways it can be used in food.

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How is flour made?

Flour is made by grinding the wheat grain:
first, grains are selected from several wheat varieties and gathered together; ;
then, the grains are sorted, and moisture is added;
Finally, they are ground and sieved repeatedly to get a finer flour.

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What does the T stand for on flour packaging in France?

The T number given on flour packaging in France is used to define different types of flour according to their ash rate: the higher the T number, the more mineral ash is present. In other words, the higher the T number, the closer you get to whole wheat flour

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Types of flour

In France, wheat flour is divided into 6 types: from T45 to T150. The higher the T number, the higher the bran content and therefore the closer you get to whole wheat flour. Each flour has its own uses: from pastry making to farmhouse bread to biscuits and more.

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T45: pastry flour

This flour contains less than 0.5% mineral material. It has a pure white and silky appearance and is used in cooking, and especially to make pastries.

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T55 and 65: all-purpose flour for bread, cakes and crepes

Type 65 flour, which has an ash rate of between 0.62% et 0.75% per 3.5 ounces (100 g) of flour, is the most widely used flour for bread-making.

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T80 and T110: bread flour or first clear flour for specialty loaves

T80 (0.75%–0.90%) and T110 (1%–1.2%), also known collectively as brown flour, are used for farmhouse bread, bran bread, and specialist loaves.

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T150: for whole wheat loaves

This flour contains more than 1.4% of mineral material and is used to make whole wheat bread.

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Traditional French flour

Traditional flour varieties are used to make Baguettes de Tradition Française (Traditional Baguettes), a designation that has been regulated under French law since 1993. Traditional French flour is type T65.

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Flour preparations for specialty loaves

Preparations are flour varieties sold in France containing the ingredients for making specialty loaves, such as dried fruit, grain, bran ...

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Organic flour

Organic flour is obtained from wheat that has been farmed organically. It is certified as such by independent organizations.

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Traditional flour varieties

Traditional wheat flour is made from wheat varieties that were farmed in the past, with regional names such as the Barbu du Mâconnais or the Rouge de Bordeaux. Since being rediscovered by farmers and millers, they are often produced organically.

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