Movements that Mattered Summer 2013

I chose the painting, A Dutch Road, by Anton Mauve from 1880, a realist painting set in the dutch countryside.  What I find so interesting about realism is, as mentioned in the lectures, the movement is not focused on a change in style but instead a change of subject matter.  As seen in this piece, realism looks to create the true reality of the everyday life, whether dark, ordinary or unpleasant the scene may be.  In this particular piece, we see a man and two horses walking down a bleak dutch road.  It depicts an unremarkable day in the life of the ordinary Dutch person.  Compared to Romanticism, which celebrates the ornate life with strong emotion and mystery, Realism, as seen here, portrays the regular person living a real and common day.  The figure walking down the road is not a special or exciting character; he is not a strong classical figure from the Neoclassical period or an important religious character to pray to from the Renaissance.  He is meant to depict a Dutch man, walking home from a long days work with two tired horses.  This is an example of realism opening up the idea of rejecting all previous movements - of depicting an important person or event and making permanent this fanciful person or event.  Realism, instead, creates the idea that the ordinary is just as important as the idealized fantasies of other movements.  It allows the depiction of a man and two horses walking home to be validated as an significant event.  Again, we see this change in subject matter from the Rocco period, a period known for its bright pastel colors and elaborate and decorated settings.  A Dutch Road, in contrast uses dark, dismal colors to create an impassive scene surrounding the figures.  Though the piece maintains a similar style to that of the Rocco period - using a painterly style with strong, thick, obvious brushstrokes - the subject matter and emotion emitted from the piece, could not be more different.
This piece by Gericault, defines the sensuality that emerged from the Romantic period.  The painting has softer lines, and less definition on precision.  It helps to add to the scene that we are seing.  The three lovers all on the bed are intertwined with each other.  Not having any one particular line drawn in precisely and having soft brush strokes, the sensuality of the painting is really shown through.I thought it was interesting as well, that the women of this painting are the stars.  The man is cascaded in dark shadows, but we see fully the woman laying on the bed, and the other woman's backside. They become the focus of the painting, being illuminated in light in front of a darker background.  The emotional and sensual scene, and the irrational brush strokes all bring this painting as a great example of Romanticism.
As a follower of the Romantic movement Constable creates a real sense of mood and drama in this landscape. The scene is of early morning after a storm on a rugged and windswept shoreline with the ruins of a castle or watchtower on one side and marshland and the estuary beyond to the other. The sky is spectacularly dramatic and really dominates the scene - the grey storm clouds still heavy in the sky from the night before casting light and dark shadows over the landscape with just the tiniest glimpse of sunlight starting to break through a small parting in the clouds. As mentioned in the lecture, this is an example of how Constable's use of colour and brushwork could make his paintings glisten - you can see the water of the estuary glistening as the sunlight is reflecting back and the morning dew glistening on the stones of the ancient ruins.  There are figures tending to their animals and going about their business and the suggestion of boats in the far distance but this activity feels small and insignificant - there is a strong sense that it is nature who is taking centre stage in this painting.
This piece at the J. Paul Getty Museum in Los Angeles is a good representation of the Rococo style. It depicts the playful and frivolous qualities typical of the period as well as an erotic subject matter we have seen throughout Rococo art. In this scene we see a young man attempting to pull his lover onto a bed, she struggles, leaving the room in disarray. An interesting aside according to the description of this piece, is that as a result of these characters' struggle a table is tipped over and a drawer opens to reveal "a book on the rules of courtship." Hogarth even painted a follow up piece called After We see soft lines and gentle curves here both in the figures and in the treatment of fabrics. Light pastel colours also help identify this piece as Rococo.
This painting is of two mythical figures, Telemachus and Eucharis, who are in love and are about to part.  It is inspired by a modern French prose epic based on characters from Homer's Odyssey.  It was painted by Jacques-Louis David in his later years while he was in exile in Brussels.  Some critics saw it as a sign of decline in his later work and believed that it was painted for aesthetic, decorative reasons alone.  However, it seems that David is again ( as in Oath of the Horatii) expressing the noble ideal of "civic virtue" in this image he paints.  Telemachus, the sad and yet determined young boy, is about to depart in the dutiful search for his father and must leave Eucharis, a beautiful nymph who he loves.   I paused to look at this painting in the Google site because of the beautiful warm light and the incredible "finish" and polish" of the piece and because of the the dreamy open eyes of the boy who faces us frontally contrasted by the young girl, in profile,with her eyes closed and her arms encircling his neck. He rests his right hand on her thigh, and holds a spear with his left hand, his index finger almost pointing and resting on the spear as if to say he will be moving on towards what he must "spear" or address- duty.  There is a wonderful warmth and feeling of restrained passion here, a sense of what might have been that is almost provocative.  The boy gazes out at us, bringing us into his world, to share, to feel and understand what he is experiencing- his story- and to look more closely- to see that he must choose between love and duty.  His rich blue tunic has fallen away from his chest and her rose colored dress drapes over her like a loose piece of fabric, leaving her arms sleeveless, and the exposure of the peachy, soft colored flesh makes them feel even closer to one another and almost "touchable" to us as viewers.  I like their headbands which remind me of classical Greece and Rome. They help hold their hair in place and are also decorative, youthful and almost playful. The shadow of her front arm forms a cross with the double rope on his chest which is a lanyard for his horn.  When you zoom into the image, you can see an inscription on the horn (which may also "point" to his "call", like the spear).  The inscription reads, Bruxelles 1818- the place and the year the image was painted.  The image as a whole is soft and sensuous and yet "precise" and "crisp".  I think David takes a little of the freedom the artists felt from the Rococo period and merges it into this beautiful soft and serious Neoclassical painting that is more symbolic than it initially appears.
The picture of the founder of the famous fine arts auction house in London. Rococo is in the soft colors, in the brushed execution, in the delicate figure and in the eleganhe delicate pose of James Christie leaning on the various paintings, in front of them, one of the painters artworks. This established the strong relationship between both men, elevating the importance and reputation of Gainsborough, since the auction house was a gathering place for collectors, dealers, and fashionable society. It also certificates the painters success
The Toledo Museaum of Art describes the work "Playfully erotic and sensuously painted, Jean-Honoré Fragonard's scene of youthful flirtation fulfils the eighteenth-century aristocratic French taste for romantic pastoral themes. The figures are beautifully dressed in rustic but improbably clean and fashionable clothes; the woman's shoes even have elegant bows on them."This painting really embodies all that we expect Rococo Art to be. It is playful, even frivolous, it has a sense of sensuality and eroticism. It shows two figures in pastoral clothes but it has been noted that they may be noble people dressed up as pastoral figures. The girl is looking out from under the blindfold so it seems like she is just playing along with this game as a pretext to seduction.When looking at this image from a formal aspect we see the Rococo sense of ornamentation in the flowers and trees. There is a loose handling of paint especially in the background where the trees take an almost cloud like shape and seem to merge into the dreamy vaporous background. There is a use of pastel colours however they are bright and playful at the same time. There aren't any harsh lines to make the image static and the flirtatious nature of the image is continued throughout the image with the use of cupids and the lively shade of pink, especially in the blush of the figure's cheeks.
I chose this painting by Fragonard because it evokes feelings of happiness and pleasure. This painting is consistent with the style of the Rococo movement with the light soft colors, rounded shapes, and thin lines. The scene depicts and young mother playing with her two young children in the country side and was an idealized picture of motherhood at the time.
Here is another painting to demonstrate Repin's focus on the common and poor people. We see how he has mastered capturing the images of the characters.A little boy is struggling to walk due to his leg injury but the older man is still trying to push him further from the church officials - we see here how the church  officials are depicted as superior and above the peasants that they even have patrol surrounding them and pushing away the poor. I feel this painting very clearly illustrates the movement beliefs of the Realist movement - showing the world how it really is and not how it is more esthetic to draw. We see the pain, struggle and tears - people being tired from the long walk, people trying to seek help from God to help them heal their injuries. 
I feel that Goya is very symbolic to the Romanticism period. His art is irrational, sensual, ruled by impulse and we see that he is not afraid to experiment. His whole series of "Disparates" are very different to anything of that time but here we have  his reflections and experiments whether  a human being can fly. We can easily describe this as emotions over reason - and this is his way of going beyond just asking a simple question - he is trying to provide an answer to us by depicting what is in his mind. We see that it was still necessary for him to have a bird attribute - sort of a mask/helmet in shape of a beak ( I doubt this was a try at aerodynamics ) and the wings that look like bird's but have to be moved in a motion with aid of the whole body. As if he sees this done through placing a human in a bird suit. 
I am so excited to have found this painting in Google art project and be able to use and discuss. I saw this painting 'in the flesh' three days ago at the Art Gallery of NSW. It is a fairly small painting but great example of Rococo colours and subject matter.The use of pastels and soft fluffy brushstrokes is typical Rococo. The lady has large blushed cheeks and suggestively plays with the bow around the dogs neck
You can tell that the painting about the third class people, was left unfinished by Daumier. The silence of the carriage is noticeable and it’s as if you could only hear the sounds of the train running. The family facing the audience is really the emphasis and you can see that it is depicted much larger and separated from those behind them. Daumier was able to, through colors and expressions, demonstrate the weariness and hardships that the third class people must had been through. Contrasting to the higher class people at the back who are just staring at a distance, there are smiles on their faces in the front of the painting, suggesting a hint of hope and contentment.  You also see this by their postures and clothing.  You can view them in their entirety compared to those behind them. Their shabby clothes, their gestures and emotions  demonstrate tiredness and gloomy tone of the scene. It makes you wonder where they are heading towards with their train, be it after a day’s work or starting on a new mission. It’s hard to tell with the colors outside the windows at the back, one being partially covered. 
I would like to choose "The Angelus" by Jean-Francois Millet painted around 1857-59. What I like about this picture is the fact that the two field workers have stopped digging for potatoes in order to recite the Angelus. On one side, it shows that inspite of their difficult life and the tough physical work, they have not lost their faith in the Church and still take the time to say their prayer. And on the other hand, it may be that this is their only chance to take a short break in the middle of their work day without being reprimanded by the supervisor. Millet himself has said that he was not a religious man but that the Angelus reminded him of his grandmother who used to make them stop work for the Angelus.Here we see an open field and the two figures stand alone, their heads bowed in prayer with their days work (the harvested potatoes) by their side. Their faces are left in shadow and their gesture is highlighted by the twilight and our attention is completed focused on their action.For a small panel, it measures only 660x550mm, it seems to have acquired legendary importance. When the Louvre tried to buy it in 1889, it is said to have inspired an unprecedented sense of patriotism. The painting was venerated by Salvatore Dali and was lacerated by a madman in 1932.
Empress Anna Ioanovna was an important figure in the Russian Empire. Despite the fact that her behaviour with the court was not kind she still managed to have power over them during her reign. It is also important to mention that it is during her time when Russia started its territorial expansion to Central AsiaI have chosen this painting to illustrate the Neoclassicism period. I feel that the depiction of the empress is done with attention to every brushstroke the viewer doe not see any sketchiness or fluffiness in the depiction of the figure. We see the differences in texture and the sheen of silk and satin. Like an illusion of the light where the source is not visible to the viewer.Clothes are very realistic in stroke -  the folds of her dress are very carefully painted with great attention to the detailing and jewelled parts on her clothing. She looks calm and restrained - her eyes are still and the look is directed above the viewer.
I feel that this painting shows a lot of traits that we associate Rococo period with. We see actor David Garrick one of the most frequently painted subjects in eighteenth-century Britain. He is depicted with his wife, Viennese dancer Eva-Maria Veigel also known as Violetti. She is striking a pose that is not at all  formal but very lively and flirty. Her hand gestures are playful and coquetish. We see here the familiarity and closeness of the spouses. It almost looks like he is distracted by her gestures but then again we could interpret it in a different way - he likes the attention and tenderness of his wife. In terms of technique we see the brushstrokes, the sketchiness and the curved and delicate lines. The contrast of bright coloured clothing is also a characteristic of the period. I like how the colour of her dress matches the inner lining of his suit. It is a small detail but it once again emphasizes their unity as husband and wife.
Like other Romantic paintings, this painting is based on a play by Lord Byron and ancient literature. It is the story of Sardanapalus, the last King of Assyria. His palace is besieged by his enemies. Sardanapalus is about to die. However, before he does so, he orders his eunuchs to kill all his wives, slaves, horses and dogs and destroy all his treasures and riches. He looks on, with supreme indifference, lying on the bed whilst all his naked wives and slaves are being murdered and his possessions are being destroyed.  Unlike neoclassicism where we see stable compositions and rigorous construction of space, here we see absolute confusion and chaos. All logic is lost. Delacroix fills up the space on the canvas with turbulence, distress, slaughter, destruction, despair, murder and sacrifice. This is a giant funeral pyre with everything going up in smoke. The figures in the scene surround Sardanaplus' bed in a way that creates a spinning effect. We are disorientated. The violence is occurring also on the edges of the canvas and practically spilling out of it to engage the viewer and create an emotional reaction. We are horrified and mystified: a guard is about to slit the throat of a woman just before our eyes. It is all very up close and personal.  The violence is enhanced by the swift brushstrokes and brilliant and exotic colors (especially the contrast of red and and white of the flesh) to show emotionality and distressed passion. It is also accentuated by the serpentine or snakelike curves of the body to show the energy and movement. Delacroix also uses theatrical effects of light to create dramatic tension in the foreground. Yet in the background it is more difficult to make out what is going on given the intense shadowing. 
I chose this painting because it really embodies all we have studied about Baroque Art and Caravaggio himself.The first thing that really catches my eye is the strong sweeping diagonal in this image created by Saint John's pose. The positioning of the leg and twist of his body creates a very strong diagonal from the upper left of the image to the bottom right. There is an intense use of chiaroscuro (or tenebrism) that really makes the figure stand out from the background. Just looking at the right leg gives you an idea of how closely the impact of light was studied by Caravaggio. The shadows created by just the muscles in the leg really stand out and create this sense of three dimensionality. There is much less a focus on symmetry in Baroque art as compared to Renaissance art and that is evident here. However, the image balances out beautifully with the careful composition of the painting and the use of lights and darks. There is a rather delicate rendering of the drapery. The figure is very relaxed yet has a very well defined muscular structure which was apparent in Baroque art. However, like most of Caravaggio's work there is a lesser sense of drama than seen in other works during this period.
Although I am a huge admirer of Realism, when I was looking at the different art pieces from the Rococo period, this painting immediately caught my eye! It does not depict a famous story from the history or from mythology, for instance, we cannot find a profound meaning in it, like in many of the Realistic paintings, but I really can stand and watch at it all day long!Dancing scene with palace interior was painted by the Rococo artist Johann Georg Platzer. He was from Austria and he was most famous with his mythological and historical paintings. Even if we are not familiar with the period from which this painting dated, we immediately can recognize the most important features of a Rococo piece of art- playful, marry paintings, depicting young and rich couples in love, we have sensuality, elegance, joyfulness. Even the title gives us a little hint- "dancing scene".I love the pastel colors Platzer had used, which are typical for the Rococo period. We see people dancing, eating, drinking, laughing.An interesting thing that I have noticed while I was zooming in and scrutinizing the masterpiece ( because I really thing that every painting hides something unique in it) is the paintings in the background. If we think of the different styles in the Rococo art and these paintings, we can see that they perfectly depicts every different aspect ( if I can call it that way) , every different subject of matter that derives from this period - we can see portraiture, we can see paintings from everyday life ( like Chardin's scenes)  down, in the right corner of the wall, the paintings with the carrots and the fruits. There is a painting, illustrating a scene from the court( depicting upper class,wealthy people), and in the middle, the biggest of all paintings with this man standing in the center and the other around him pouring him wine may show either a mythological story or just a playful story. If we look at the upper part of the wall - we see a landscape painting also.I like the frivolity of the painting, the colors, I very much admire also the way in which the drapery of the dancers had been painted.The ornaments in the architecture in the painting also show us from which period is the paintings- we all know that one of the most characteristic features of Rococo is decoration.
This piece by François Boucher from 1740 represents a piece of Rococo art and depicts the birth of mythological Venus. It can be identified as Rococo art by the time period, but most importantly by the tone and style of the painting. It is a rejection of Baroque art in that it depicts frivolity and sensuality, as opposed to the strength and serious of the Baroque. The nude figures are overtly sexual in the way they lounge together in celebration. The angels flying in the background represent a playfulness and delight. The female bodies are leaner than in the Renaissance and the painting's lines more delicate; there is a brushy feeling to the clouds in the background and a frothiness to the caps of the waves. Boucher plays quite a bit with light and dark in this painting, with Venus emerging through the ominous storms clouds on the right into the contrasting lightness of the clouds on the left. The darkness of the storm clouds add some depth and intrigue to the painting; it foils the frivolity of the rest of the scene, adding some drama to the mood. And Similar to Jean Baptiste Simeon Chardin's The Skate (1728), the fish at the bottom are almost gruesome and graphic in their boldness and ugliness. 
This is arguably a work painted at Titian’s artistic peak.  Commissioned by King Phillip II of Spain, this large-scale painting is one of which Titian called ‘poesie’ paintings.  These were paintings inspired by the Greek poet Ovid’s Metamorphosis, and in each painting a different mythological scene is depicted.  This painting demonstrates how Titian masterfully managed to arrange all the figures in the complex and dynamic manner.In this particular painting, the narrative is about Actaeon, a huntsman who accidentally wandered into the bathing place of Diana, the chaste goddess of hunt.  As punishment, Diana turned Actaeon into a stag, and he was then devoured by his own hunting dogs.  Titian narrated this dramatic scene vividly.  Upon looking at the painting, we immediately sense the two opposing ‘forces’ (Actaeon on the left and Diana on the right) Their opposition is intensified by the connection of their gaze.  Whereas Actaeon is taken by surprise to walk into Diana’s bathing place, the goddess is infuriated by this offence.  Both their dynamic and exaggerated hand postures emphasise the heightened tension.  The nymphs’ gazes also render the scene more dramatic.  Whereas one of them desperately pulls the red garment to cover the goddess, another one looks at Actaeon with almost a sense of admiration. The depiction of multiple female nudes was probably a pretext to suit the artist or King Phillip II’s taste, as female nudes in Greek mythological paintings were not considered obscene, but rather, elevated, since it showed that the painters and viewers engaged with Classical past.
In this painting there is a clear break of lightning dividing the piece almost in two. Our attention immediately goes to the left, where the drama characteristic of the Barroque period is reproduced. A woman is on a bull entering the water. Although she might be about to drown her face shows confidence, she wants to be there. She looks back to the others that are shocked, with hands in prayer position or elevated to the sky, expressing fear and nervous. All of them are strong and massive figures. The scene is in open nature and we can also appreciate the details on water reflection, sky colors, dresses and vegetation. Even being outside, women are well dressed and with jewelry, we notice their high class status. Everything is exagerated, from the body expressions to the variety of color we see on the water reflection.Rembrandt added name and date to this painting that is actually based on the poem of Ovid about how roman god Jupiter disguised himself as a white bull to seduce the princess Europa and take her away to a land that would receive her name. 
I chose this Italian "High Renaissance "period painting while looking at Titian's work.  I was also taken by a piece by Hans Holbein the Younger, "Edward VI as a Child", painted about 4 years earlier in the North.  Looking at the the 2 paintings, there are obvious differences between the 2 painters as well as differences between the Northern and Southern "high" Renaissance styles. This portrait is of an adolescent boy, Ranuccio Farnese, who was the grandson of Pope Paul IV, and was from a family of position and power.  He had been given the title of Prior of the Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem (the "Knights of Malta") at his young age.  The first thing that drew me to this portrait was the brightness of the light on the boys face and shimmery tunic contrasted with the darkness of his coat and the background of the painting.  The light emanates from a source to the left of the viewer and the painter, rather than from "head on" and the boy seems to look towards the light, away from the viewer, with almost a sense of shyness.  Titian seems to have painted him from a frontal position and possibly the boy is standing on something or Titian is kneeling or sitting, as this is a slightly upward looking view of the boy- possibly to denote his high stature at such a young age.The boy's skin glows, his eyes are bright and youthful, and his expression shows a confidence and thoughtfulness that is surprising for his age. His belly looks chubby and well fed.  He also appears very handsome and I wonder if Titian enhanced his facial features at all to give a more physically handsome and vital appearance. There is a sense of childhood being replaced by adulthood.   His right hand looks large for his age and "older"- it holds a glove and possibly represents how he must handle his direction into the world of responsibility.  The  silver cross on his cloak gleams and reflects the light- it looks particularly large as does the coat which was possibly given to him by an adult.  If you zoom into this picture, you can see all of the shades of white and gray paint that Titian used to create the shiny quality of the cross.  The boy also wears a belt, probably leather, with clips and an attached sword head which is very detailed and reflective.  He wears a "codpiece" which seems to be attached to his pants- something common during the 15th and 16th centuries.  My thought is that it is symbolic of his aristocratic birth and his possible heirs.  There is a realism in this portrait- physically and psychologically and a dramatic use of color and light.  The flesh looks real and warm and glows, the boys body seems very apparent underneath his clothing and his posture and stance seem natural.  The sheen of the fabric of the red and gold tunic, the delicacy of the lace neckpiece and the shiny, and the reflective quality of the metal pieces are exquisite.  Titian captures this young boy's youth, early manhood and possible psychological maturity as well as his mood, charm and vulnerability- all in one portrait.  
Leonardo Da Vinci completed his Annunciation between the years 1472-1475. It now hangs in the Uffizi Gallery in Florence and was commissioned by the monks of the Monastery of Monte Oliveto, outside Florence. In this representation of the Annunciation, when Gabriel comes down from Heaven to tell Mary that she will be the mother Jesus Christ, Mary looks like a wealthy young maiden. This is an interesting way to portray Mary, because in the Bible, she is not a wealthy maiden, but a poor woman. Mary appears to be quite young as well. She also appears to not be surprised at the sight of Gabriel that has appeared in her backyard to tell her that she will birth Jesus Christ. She holds up her hand in some alarm, but her facial features do not convey any fright. This is also a new way of conveying Mary, as in many other portrayals of the Annunciation, Mary cowers in the fear of the angel that has appeared before her. There is also an extensive background in this painting. There is even a port in the background with ships and towers. There is also no fence, but instead a low wall. A higher fence or wall is commonly presented in many other versions of the Annunciation. The painting is also divided in half by the trees in the middle ground. The grass that Gabriel kneels down upon is extremely detailed and adorned with flowers that all represent Mary. Gabriel holds a lily, which is the flower of Mary. This is also an example of Da Vinci’s signature sfumato effect; that the distance is hazier than the foreground, by weather effects. This can be seen in the background, in the mountains and clouds.Mary is seated outside an extensive Villa. She reads a book that sits on a lectern that is done with remarkable detail. She is possibly reading the Bible. Mary also wears red, blue and gold gowns. There is no shadow on either Gabriel or Mary’s faces, possibly representing their holiness. Da Vinci played with lighting and color which is clear in theAnnunciation. Due to Da Vinci’s study of light and color, the overall composition is more convincingly three dimensional. His rendering of drapery is very precise as well. Da Vinci’s Annunciation seems to be much farther ahead of its time, rather than only the few years that it is, in actuality. It is yet another example of Leonardo Da Vinci’s genius.
I chose this painting because of the lost eyes of the heroin. The artwork describes a passage of the Old Testament when Judith captures the assyrian general's head while he is asleep and the city of Bethulia is free again. The eyes makes us think about her inner feelings doing this difficult job. Is she suffering? Is she declining to deliver the head? Is she ashamed or digusted? Or is it just a lack of expression?The female heroin is very wealthy dressed and wears fine jewelery, faith to the prosperity of venetian style. We can see the many colors and of different types of fabric well detailed by the oil painting possibilities. Even the servant, and the presence of a servant is also a signal of wealth, wears soft and vivid fabrics brilliant painted with its draperies. The servant also expresses feelings like sorrow. There is a clear spot of light in the center, lightning the protagonist as a Renaissance order. The chiaro-oscuro plays with the light and shade. The light is where the main subject is and is notable the detail of her hand pressing the dead's forhead. The shade hides the less important things, like the background's details. We can still see however that they are in a chamber. The diagonal line is also visible in the construction of the painting. There is almost a triangle between the three people and this reinforces the feeling of movement of her holding/hiding or throwing his head to the servant.
This piece at the Uffizi Gallery in Florence is an excellent example of art in the Baroque period. There is a narrative here aided by Caravaggio's use of chiaroscuro, the interplay of light and dark to highlight elements of the work and to accent the drama. It is a very dynamic scene and much less static than what we have seen in the early Renaissance. We see a great deal of movement taking place in the struggle between Abraham and his son and even in the urgency of the angel to intervene. This sense of drama is a departure from the quietude of the Renaissance.There is an asymmetrical and rather angular composition here typical of this period which is a contrast to the earlier balance and symmetry we saw during the Renaissance.
The painting by Georges is an amazing use of light and dark. The candle on the table, which we don't actually see, is the only source of light but is sufficient enough for us to see what is happening in this scene, all the details on Magdalen's shirt, the mirror that reflects a skull sitting on a book, and most importantly, the expression on Magdalen's face, deep in thought and repentance, not concerned with one hand that touches the skull, fingers elongated. You wonder whether she's staring at the mirror or just in front of her. Although she's in a dark room and the sight of a skull seems a bit out of place (yet symbolic), there's a sense of calming and liveliness (from the candle) to this painting. Most of the bottom part is dark but you don't feel that it's being awkwardly cut off as you see further light, albeit faint, at the lower left hand corner. 
This work is an exception to most of Bellini's works, who usually chose to paint religious themes. The amount of fine detail in this painting is really bewildering, as in many works from the High Renaissance. The fine carpet by the left corner shows that this young woman comes from a possibly wealthy background. The mirror which hangs behind her on the dark green walls, along with the view of the Venetian landscape adds to the depth of the painting. Although the landscape isn't in the greatest detail, the use of color and the blending of the different greens and blues perhaps gives the painting melancholy atmosphere. The young woman does not look very happy either, and this theme is also shown by the dark clouds and the setting of the sun in the background. The use of green in the landscape and in the walls unifies the picture and adds harmony to the painting. This is further intensified by the color of her dress into the sky, and the grapes into the trees on the hills.There is one ambiguity here and that is the depiction of the young, beautiful woman's left elbow, being grotesquely larger than the other - it is difficult to believe that this was a mistake, so perhaps it is an illusion of the mirrors - a deliberate distortion. While the woman is fully engaged, admiring her beauty in private perhaps, we get a glimpse of her beautiful, and detailed pearl brooch. 
I chose this image because I am particularly drawn to scenes from everyday life. Though I enjoy pictures of monarchs and dieties I find it facinating to see a glimpse into what the life of the average person might have been like. In this painting the artists paints from the perspective of a guest at the wedding. The viewer feels like they are standing in a doorway or side of the room. Even though the guests have odd shapped heads and oversized arms and feet the image feels natural and realistic.  The mood of the guests at this wedding appears to be subdued. There is a lot of action, guests are deep in conversation, a child is licking his bowl clean, musicians are playing the bagpipe, and hot soup is being served from a large wooden tray. The solemn mood in the room seems to depict that the life of a peasant was a hard life, even at a time of celebration these hard working people wear an expression that shows the struggle  they must endure. The most interesting figure at this celebration is the bride. She is seated in front of a tapastry silently with her hads folded in her lap. Apparently it was Flemish custom for the bride not to eat, drink, or speak at her wedding. According to the description of the painting other symbolism could be found in the double tiered bridal crown above her head to mean that she was already pregnant. I also found it interesting that multiple people have clothing items that are the same shade of red. It was probably common for people living in a small town to have clothing made out of similar material.  I wonder if there is any other symbolism that can be found in this painting. 
I chose this painting of Raphael, because I think it really depicts the concepts of Renaissance art.  We have this scene with the Virgin and the Christ child decending form the heavens while Pope Sixtus the II and St. Barbara flank either side of her.  Creating that triangular shape that we had scene before in many Renaissance paintings.  Not only does it create that sense of balance in the work, but it also has that idea of the Trinity as well.  I also read that the angels were added at the very end of the painting, because Raphael felt that it brought more symmetry to the piece.  There is also that use of softness that surrounds the Virgin and child in light as well as the faces of angels in the blue.  The characters themselves are well defined and brought out into the forefront, and the background is muted and soft.  This allows are eyes to be fixated on the three main characters of the work.The most notable thing is the relationship between the Virgin and Christ child.  You get a sense that the Madonna is protecting the child in her arms.  Raphael has a way of showing a motherly connection between the two.  The child nestles his face against his mother, and the mother holds her child close to her.  There is a sense of protection from the Virgin, as well as fear.  Both mother and child have an expression of fear on their faces as well.  As if they both know the future of the child, and Raphael is able to depict that kind of emotion from the painting.
This gilded statute of Christ was created for the Chapel of the Blessed Sacrament in St. Peter's Basilic during the Baroque Period. It is distinguishable from earlier Renaissance works in it's sense of power, drama, and excitement. The lines and muscles of the body are boldly defined, the body partially nuder, the face emotionally expressive in its somberness. Like Da Vinci's teachings, the body maintains an angle that aligns the outstretch foot on a diagonal from the chest as Christ ascends towards heaven. The fabric is so intricate and detailed, you can almost feel the folds and sweep of movement. This personification of Christ's rising does not attempt to express stillness; instead it expresses power, emotion, movement and life. It is very detailed and bold while at the same time maintaining a reverent simplicity. 
As I made some research, I choose this painting because I think that it really can depict in the best way the style of Poussin. So he was a painter of the classical French Baroque although he had spend most of his time in Rome.In his works, in contrast with many other Baroque paintings, the dominant characteristics are clarity and order. He favored line over color. In The Adoration of The Magi we can easily see and distinguish the outlines of  the figures, the very clear colors that the artist had used. By this clear, logic illustrations of the figures we can see a return to antiquity which was very characteristic of Poussin's art. We see some classical elements as the balanced treatment of the light, we can't see these big contrast between the dark and bright colors as in some others Baroque paintings. Poussin's works were very much influenced by the Renaissance traditions, he took the warm,sensual colors from the Venetian Renaissance, also he took the balanced and harmonious compositions from Raphael.Again we have motion, we have emotions ( face expressions) , we have diagonals.Although some contemporary viewers think of Poussin's style as a rather cold and stiff, away from the vivacious drama and naturalism I think he was really one of a kind, very interesting personality and his art also.
I chose this double portrait of  a couple, presumed to be recently married, as an example of the 'lively expression' and emotion we see in portraiture of the Baroque period.  The couple are sitting together in a very relaxed pose, with the lady casually resting her arm on the shoulder of her husband with easy familiarity. It isn't a static portrait - you feel there is movement by the tilted back angle of his head  and hers leaning forward as if they have just pulled themselves apart having shared some amusing story or exchanged words of love.  You can  sense the real affection between the couple - not just through their physical contact and easy demeanor but also through the contentment and happiness which emanates from their faces.Similarly, following other Baroque traits, the portrait is painted on the sweeping diagonal - the diagonal lines of the couples' bodies also following this line.  The couple, although off centre are the clear focus in the foreground , set against the darker background of the shade of the tree, with the space opening up to the right to show a sunlit garden with less finely defined figures conversing and countryside in the  distance beyond.
I have chosen this painting of vermeer because it is so close to the one we talked about in class. This is part of his series on women in everyday domestic activities. Here is a maid pouring milk from a jug and there is sunlight pouring into the room in a diagonal line. The light coming in seems to make the bread rolls on the table glow and it also creates a light and dark effect on the blue table cloth. The maid looks absorbed in her task and the calm expression on her face makes me think that she is making a mental list of things to do during the day.I imagine he not only liked painting women in small domestic spaces doing everyday activities but that he also favored the colors blue and yellow. Woman holding a balance, woman holding a pearl necklace, the love letter, a lady writing, a woman with a water pitcher all show the women in either blue or yellow or both. I wonder if it was just a personal preference or if it was because they reflect light so beautifully.
In the front plan we see, with numerous details, the adoration of the Magi. The personnages at the front are in parallel to the viewer. The landscape at the back is stretched out and we see the mountain that could even be a link with the older, the eternal, given that this is a Biblical scene that we observe. The fine details that the painter shows us is what heightens the sense of reality, that we are almost a part of this process : the butterfly with translucent wings, the grass growing up from the crack of the ruins. Even his signature at the bottom of the painting on a rock. We see the contrast in clothing : Virgin Mary is wearing very humble and monochrome clothing , her hair covered whereas the Magi are dressed with chic and luxury. We see their clothes are decorated with precious stones. They are wearing expensive and finely made jewelery made of expensive and fragile stones ( ruby and pearls in one necklace is a challenging set , especially for jewelers of that time ). The gifts they are offering are splendid and costly, all the best that they had they bring to the child. The viewer notices the contrast between the richness and beauty of their clothes , even the cases that they carry their  gifts in are crafted and decorated graciously.
I was drawn to this painting because of the gaze of the woman. She has a content and knowing expression.The scene in the painting depicts a legend that says that Mary conceived at the same moment her parents embraced.  The young woman also has her hand over her stomach. It is evident that the artist is influenced by ancient Roman and Greek art and architecture by the style of buildings in the background. There is a lot of depth and dimension. The garments are rich and heavy and the city seems to expand far into the distance.
I chose to talk about this piece for many reasons.  Although it is in the Gothic time period, areas of this piece just don't fit that mold.  There are definite characteristics that would place in the Gothic time, in that the drapery is  a little stiff, and Mary's hands have that elongated look to them.  I wanted to focus my attention on the baby Jesus.  He still has the characteristic of the Gothic time by looking like a miniature man, and yet we are meant to see him as a baby.  It almost feels like we are looking into the future, that this baby is being presented to us as a man that will die for our sins, as the bible story tells us.  Although the child looks to be barely sitting in the arms of his mother, Duccio creates a sense of connection when the child reaches up to play with his mother clothes.  I think it is one of the first times when we see this kind of interaction when it comes to the Madonna and Child.  For the most part they are always depicted looking out to the viewer, and the Madonna holding her child out to the viewer as well.  Here, although she is still holding the child out to the viewer, the child reaches to his mother, gaze pointed at her, and the mother holds her gaze to the child as well.  Its a very soft and tender moment between mother and child, and these kind of characteristics had not been seen before.  That is exactly what drew me to the piece.  That sense of human interaction, that had yet to be expressed in paintings.
The painting presents the lying young Venus. I like this work for its realism and sensuality. The sensitive rendering of the body and materials, the concern with nature and the sense of observation and details describe main visual ideas of the Renaissance. There is a high level of individuality an emotions in this work. The drapery really respond to sense of weight and motion. The space is in the linear prospective - the mathematical system of visual presentation invented in Renaissance. "Venus of Urbino" is balanced and calm, it gives not only the sense of beauty, but the idea of individuality.
The Dormition of the Virgin is a perfect example of a Earlier Northern Renaissance painting. In the Bible The Dormition of the Virgin is actually her death but it is not called "The Death of the Virgin" because the tradition says that soon after her soul left her body the two will be reunited and taken up to Heaven. So the Dormition ( which literally means "falling asleep") represents the death, the resurrection and the glorification of Mary.In this painting we can immediately recognize some elements from the North- like the geometrical form of the drapery of the 12 apostles who are surrounding Mary. We can see again the many details which Holbein used in the clothes of the apostles, on the blanket which Mary is covered with - the beautiful ornaments on it. The angels are carrying the familiar float lights which we have already seen in the  Ghent Altarpiece and again we see the perfectly illustrated chains of these float lights, the play between the brighter spaces on them and the shadows represented in dark color. We see Christ above Mary, standing between two angels in a cloud, waiting for His Mother's soul, which is represented as a young girl stretching her hands to Christ. Also if we zoom in a little bit and look closer to the image of the third apostle staying on the left side of Mary, who is holding a book, we can see the tears on his eyes and the representation of them is so amazing with the reflecting light in each of them. Again we have many detailed illustration of the book he holds, of the clothes he wear. The gentle strikes of the brush to represent the hair of the apostles and Mary are also very common element of the Northern Renaissance painting.
This was originally part of a diptych with the left wing depicting four angels adoring a smiling Virgin Mary and Christ child. This Toledo wing that you see consists of a very different mood. The Virgin Mary’s sad and mournful facial expression, with body and hands facing towards Christ’s crucifixion. Then you see Christ’s face in agony with his body twisted in pain. On the other side of Christ is St John, his head turns the opposite direction that seems to send a message that he does not want to witness the crucifixion nor Christ being hurt. You can really feel his difficult position of being in sight of what’s happening to Christ. A lot of details were depicted in the three figures. Careful drapery, Christ’s emaciated body, his hair and the thorns around Christ’s head, and particularly the expressiveness of their faces. The figures of Virgin Mary and St John help create symmetry as well.  The top of the wing you see the design of Gothic architecture with the design of the windows and the pointed arch, further providing a sense of symmetry to the whole piece. The top could be viewed as stretching towards the sky/heaven, in preparation of Christ’s resurrection. 
There were two things that instantaneously struck me with this paining. The first is the drapery and how it interacts with the human body. It’s what we saw in Duccio’s work ‘Maesta’ - giving the illusion that the drapery is almost falling off the edge of the painting, adding to the naturalism and humanism of the figures. The sense of depth is added by the shading, making it a lot more realistic.The second, which was also mentioned in class, is the fact that there is a lot going on in just this one painting. The salvation story is to be read in chronological order, in rows from left to right – each figure and detail in the painting have a story of its own. Although at first sight the painting gives us a gloomy, melancholy feeling with a sense of hopelessness, some of the figures actually look quite calm and peaceful, while some seem very focused, though perhaps frustrated. The elongated fingers of the figures as well as the use of shading adding depth to the painting add to the naturalism and realism, as mentioned before. The colors are used beautifully, nevertheless the use of black lines around the figures (such as on the blanket on the bed) dissolve the 3 dimensional effect that could have been depicted. Although that would take the painting from Gothic art to the Renaissance period, it is known that Multscher departed from the flowing contours of the 'Beautiful Style' of the International Gothic of his day and pioneered a more severe form of realism, hence why I believe the lines could have been blended more thoroughly to add to the humanism.
So called because the subject is holding Pink Carnations. I love the detail in this painting. You can see each strand of fur on the mans hat and collar around his neck and his face..... His face is amazing. This man has seen a lot in life and you can read it all over his face. I love that you can distinguish all his wrinkles. Great example of north renaissance and detailed artwork done with oils. 
This piece shows many of the styles attributed to Northern Renaissance painting which we have been discussing this week. The first one I notice is the attention to detail. On the hem and sleeves of Mary's robe we see shining gems and intricate embroidery. The treatment of the robe is handled in a manner which is typical of northern pieces as well. There are lots of very angled folds in the bottom portion. The way the artist has depicted the light falling on her knees makes this fabric look soft and velvety. After zooming (way) in on her hair it looks like she is wearing a very fine veil as well.This piece is also extremely well balanced. The window mirrors the shape of the alcove on the opposing wall, and the rug in the foreground mirrors the tones and patterns of the fabric on the top and back of the seat. These aspects all focus the viewer's attention to the central figures.There is evidence of intuitive perspective in the bowl of water on the right hand side of the painting. It appears to be on an unusual angle so the viewer is able to see its contents.
The subject matter of this painting is rare.  During the Renaissance, a period when artists sought to rationally express their observations and ideals using mathematical proportions, it was unusual for a painter to depict a dream.  It is all the more unusual, therefore, to see a pope depicted not in a church, but in an ordinary bed chamber. In this painting, an angel appears before the sleeping Pope Sergius to announce to him that bishop Saint Lambert has been assassinated.  Therefore Pope Sergius must appoint a new bishop, Saint Hubert.  This is depicted in the foreground of the panel.  One trait that is unique to Northern Renaissance painting is the angular drapery.  We can easily see that on the angel and the pope’s garment.  The posture of the pope is rendered with remarkable attention, showing the artist’s (or artists’, as this painting is believed to be painted by van der Weyden’s workshop) close observation to the human body to render a naturalistic posture.  It is worth noting the treatment of the pope’s face gently resting on his right palm.  Outside of the pope’s chamber, we see the continuation of the narrative.  The narration of the story continues on the other side of the river, in the far background, where the pope presents Saint Hubert with the bishop’s miter and staff. Since the painting is about the pope’s dream, the artist(s) took liberty in using multiple perspectives in depicting the narrative.  For each scene in the painting, a different single-point perspective is used.  This structurally divides the painting into different sections so that the story can be more easily comprehended.  Also, as the events in the story progress, the figures recede further into the distance.  This directs the viewer’s gaze and guide us through the painting. Albeit being a painting about a dream, every figure and object looks very real and is painted with great detail, a trait that is typical of Northern Renaissance paintings.  The use of multiple intuitive perspectives might be a device to evoke ‘dream’?
This early renaissance altarpiece depicts the Virgin Mary and baby Jesus. It is notable for its use of geometric and linear perspective. The perspective centers around the two figures in the middle and extends out diagonally on each side. It plays on depth through it's varied tones; the figures in the forefront are the most saturated with color; the vibrancy becomes less and less the farther the figures are away. A light blue sky is seen in the background to provide atmospheric perspective. One can see that this is earlier Renaissance art because the naturalism of the figures' faces is not yet perfected; there is still an illustrative quality to it that is associated with Medieval Art. However unlike Medieval art, the use of heavy black outline is diminished and this painting has depth - both in the background, but also in the details of the clothes, design of the archways and stairs. 
This eye catching portrait is another example of portrait painting in profile in early Renaissance Florence and illustrates the move towards the more individualistic approach in the portrayal of people.  The outline of the young girls' delicate features, pale skin, blonde hair and blue eyes are strikingly set against the blue sky of the background - although the colours themselves remain subtle and harmonius conveying a feeling of softness, stillness and calm.  Her richly decorated embroidered dress in soft red, green and gold contrast well with the background without fighting it - maintaining an overall feeling of softness.  We see the use of atmospheric perspective with the slightly blurred depiction of a green landscape in the distance which draw you in for just a moment - taking your eyes away from the obvious beauty of the subject In the foreground. Her posture seems slightly curious- her pelvis seemingly inflated and bending forwards - suggesting as in Van Eyck's 'Arnolfini' portrait that the subject is either pregnant or is following a particular style of fashion of the time.
The first difference of this painting from the others is that it is to be read and interpreted from right to left – we have the whole sequence of stories and meanings.Zephyrus, the wind, and  the nymph Chloris who he kidnaps and marries  and right next to her we see the goddess of Spring, Flora that she is transformed into. Another interpretation is that from their union La Primavera is born hence the flowers on the dress and the garland, the circlet of flowers on her head.We have Venus in the middle with her clothes draped in such an elegant manner and the hand gesture that looks very peaceful. The Three Graces could also  be interpreted as the goddesses – Athena, Aphrodite and Hera because they all are so graceful and their clothes and hair are so fine and full of details. Mercury is seen as the protector of the scene  - he guards the serenity of the moment.  I like the idea of profound symbols in this painting – every attribute  speaks to the viewer.
The reason why I chose this fresco is because it is unusual -  horizontal – depicted as s miniature and covers the whole wall.Many personages are spread out and they create an impression of space and depth not often associated with the period – also could be argued that this is the unique style of Simone Martini.Madonna and Child are the protagonists of the story all the eyes are on them – hence the depth of the depiction, almost like an icon, a holy image.The draping of the baldachin is painted in such a way that the viewer sees the inside of it , the angle is chosen very accurately.The clothes have a lot of folds that fold geometric figures and the pillow, on which the Virgin Mary is seated, is pressed down with the weight which also points out that she is a physical person. This fresco has many gothic elements such as sharp broken lines and use of trajectories – if we were to draw a line from the direction of the eyes  of each person, angel and martyr we would find that they will be on the protagonist.
I quickly chose this painting (actually the central piece in a five-section altarpiece) because Giotto is one of my favorite painters- I first saw his work in Assisi, Italy at the Basilica of St. Francis.  I didn't know exactly why I liked his work, but I bought a book in Assisi of his Frescoes and brought it home with me.  I also like the simple theme of this work that reaches beyond it's Christian message of the Virgin and baby Jesus- that of a tender mother and her baby interacting.This beautiful painting is of the Virgin Mary holding the Christ child as a baby.  They each look very real and human and "weighty" and they are interacting like a mother and baby.  Mary's face is slightly turned toward Christ and his is almost completely turned towards her.  He is reaching out to touch the white rose ( a symbol  in her right hand with his right hand and also holding her index finger just like a baby might do, showing curiosity and affection.  He also holds the index finger of her left hand with his left hand.  The scene seems real and I am struck by the sense that she and he might move at any moment.  Their skin and bodies have a soft, fleshy, three dimensional feeling and he seems to have a little roll of baby fat on his neck.  It seems like you could touch their skin and it would be warm.  Her deep blue robe with delicate gold embroidery and his sheer blanket both drape with deep folds that respond to their bodies- especially his- and his right foot rests on a fold of her robe as if for balance and comfort. The shading through out the painting, even on their fingers is gentle and realistic.  The two figures are like one- silhouetted against the arched gold leaf which reminds me of a Gothic church door and their delicately patterned halos are like circular rose windows.  
Hugo Van Der Goes, despite a short career of about 15 years, has produced some of the most remarkable works of 15th Century Neatherlandish art. In this painting (oil on oakwood), we see the three kings bringing gifts to the infant Jesus. I chose this scene because it is a wonderful example of all that we discussed in class - the incredible amount of detail not just in the treatement of figures but in the way the landscape  recedes so gracefully and elegantly into the background. What is astonishing is how he managed to render the tiny figures of the cattle, the horses and the people so far behind the main scene.As for the main figures, we see all the elements of early renaissance art. The figures look solid in volume except the Virgin Mary who seems to adhere to the Gothic convention of delicacy and grace with that typical ovoid face. The fabric looks real and we see the richness of the cloaks worn by the three kings, silk with rich gold embroidery and fur contrasts with the plain clothes worn by Mary and Joseph.Another feature that struck me immediately is the pose of each one of the main figures. The kings pay homage to the infant Jesus, Joseph is seen kneeling next to Mary and Mary holds Jesus on her lap while she lifts his left hand. This particular action seems to be the result of observation of actual people and their gesture. Even today we can see mothers do this with their babies as a way of making the babies greet the person in front. I notice also that everyone is looking at the child and the child looks out at the viewer.Thirdly the reflection of light, as it falls on the fabric and the faces of the figures, is emphasised by light and dark shading and the different shades of green seen in the landscape. Finally, as we saw in the Portinari altarpiece, we see once again the purple Iris and the Columbines, signifying the 7 sorrows of the virgin (to sympolise that she will eventually lose her son).So i think it is a good example of the Northern Renaissance by a well known artist whose other work was discussed in class.
This alter piece was painted for St. Ansanus in the Duomo of Siena. It is tempera on panel and what immediately caught my eye was the Gothic architecture in the back. There are lancet style arches framing the piece. They are highly decorated with  gothic patterning on the panels. What I love about these arches is that they seem to almost act like a church's exterior with the towers framing the arches and elongating the entire piece.Looking at the painting itself we see an interesting element in this image - the sentence in the middle of the composition almost as if being spoken by the angel like in a comic strip. This gives it an almost theatrical aspect since not many paintings are seen where you can read the words being spoken. Unlike most images of the annunciation the expressions on the figures here are almost angry. The virgin Mary looks scared and is backing off from the angel and the angel is almost making a threatening gesture with his pointed finger. Mary is still shown with her signs as always - The lily to signify her purity and the book in her hands that she was reading. The dove above her seems to be shining these rays of light on her to signify the event actually taking place,The figures themselves encapsulate all the elements we relate to Gothic Art. They are elongated and there is an attenuation of forms. If you look at the hands and fingers you see they are unnaturally long and the recurring emphasis on length in Gothic art is seen here as well. The drapery is much more natural with depth and weight. The creases are shown using shading rather than incised lines. When looking at the cloak of the angel, however, we see that it isn't falling to the ground with the weight. Although the folds of the drapery are very realistic, the cloak itself seems to have a weightless quality to it. Almost like it shows the aura surrounding an angel; like some parts are floating around him. We do see a move towards the Renaissance Period as well. The black, flattening outline is not there. There is an attempt at linear perspective which is seen in the floor. The perspective is not entirely real since the throne on which Mary is sitting is not consistent with regards to that.I think this image is good example of the combination of Gothic Art and a move towards Renaissance.
This sculpture has many visible roman art characteristics as the full naturalism in his regular body, the presence of the expression on the face and the hair details, together with the tunic that dresses his body. This tunic is deeply carved adding more reality. The feet in contraposto position is also relevant. Although the arms are missing, we can easily imagine that the left arm must has been in elevation, as many roman sculptures were. This sculputure refers to Pluto, the myth of season creation, but even being a myth, the figure was made as a real man. 
This wonderful piece which was used to carry the blood of St Stephen during a coronation ceremony in the Palatine Chapel of Aachen. The treatment of the piece is full of details common to Christianity art and the richness of the work in gold and precious stones catches our eyes. I personally was enchanted with the variety of colors. The stones are polished and settled in an organized way and we can see the cross that is formed in the center, very symmetrical and balanced like a greek cross.
This statue of Emperor Hadrian from the Imperial period of the Roman history exemplifies the high degree of naturalism and individualization adopted by the artists of the age. Fortunately the piece survived the recycling process of bronze statues that resulted in the rarity of similar objects from the Roman period. A comparison of this bronze statue with the marble portrait of the same Emperor presented by Mina A. ( proves the notion of verism  inherent to roman artworks . Influence of the Greek culture is witnessed through the expressionless face as well as the archaic figures present on his muscle cuirass. 
Books were very important in the Medieval Culture. As the most essentual part of story telling. Monasteries were centers of learning and book creation. I have chosen this object as a good exapmle of Medieval book. The cover is made of leather and decorated with delicate metal works and precious stones. The repousse technique is used to bring tridimentionality to the figures. Hands of Jesus are emphasized to point an attention. HOwever i am not sure why there are four crosses, it might represent the orientation and Jesus presence in every pert of the world. The cabochon shape of stones and metal capitonnes represent the idea of Holy Jerusalim and the idea of Jesus entering this book.
 For this week, I chose the Portrait of Emperor Hadrian, from the 2nd century CE. As we have learned through the past lectures, Roman portraiture is different than Greeks in several ways, which is represented in this piece. Firstly, though the Greeks portrayed their polytheistic beliefs, sculpting large monuments in representation of such figures as Zeus and Athena, the Romans tended to create similar monumental pieces representing the rulers of the Roman Empire, actual humans. This piece is an example of such, as Emperor Hadrian ruled over the Roman Empire at the end of the first century and into the second. The portrait is idealized, following the Greek’s trend, however it is a true portrait of Emperor Hadrian, with individual features. It is known that Emperor Hadrian had a large, thick beard and very curly hair. It is evident in the piece that the artist focused on his distinctive features. The portrait is also representative of the Roman style with the eyes. The pupils and irises are carved into their piece, rather than the Greeks who painted on the eyes rather than carving.
The vase is carved out of a single piece of volcanic rock (agate) for the emperor. It is carved in high relief of interlaced leaves and vine. Although this particular image does not show it, the side view there is a man like face with horns. I presume this must be some Greek Mythology but I don't know what. The human face is very real and specific with expressions of agitation which is consistent with the era. With different light, the vase looks different colour!  
This shows the evolution of Egyptian art.  Although Egyptians still buried the dead as mummies this painting shows that by adding realistic likeness to paintings they were influenced by changes in Greek and Roman art.  I really like this picture because its dated only by the design of the cloth he is wearing.  If you updated his cloths to a button down shirt and rep tie he would look modern.
I chose this piece because of the exquisite intricacy of the art and design. It seems so fragile and delicate.Jesus is on the cross in the middle with incised gold leaf under a convex rock crystal while the four evangelists, Matthew, Mark, Luke and John surround him and are carved out of ivory.
This is a depiction of the disciple Luke from c. 800., from a gospel book. Identifying this as a piece of Christian Medieval Art is its subject matter (a depiction of one of Christ’s disciples). Another is its plentiful and bold use of color and gold. Gone is the naturalism of Roman art; it maintains more of an illustrative, maybe even slightly cartnoon-ish quality, rather than that of a formal portrait.Also notable is the artist’s use of space – or rather, lack therefore. While the Roman’s were quite comfortable with open spaces and background, Christian and Medieval Art tend to fill every inch of the art with details, colors, and carefully places symbolism. The illustration itself is incased in an elaborate painted frame. Unfortunately, while I am not knowledgeable enough about the intricacies of the Bible’s stories to pick up on all the symbolism used in this piece (such as the winged bull in the upper left), it is clear that every detail in this work is purposeful. The halo represents Luke’s connection to Christ and his holy role in history, and I assume that the scrolls at his feet represent his teachings and contributions to the Bible. 
While all the images we have seen as yet have been of men, I wanted to look at how women were portrayed in Roman times. There is very fine attention to detail in this bust. There is a softness in her that we don't see in images of men. The hair and the eyebrows are finely carved to give the appearance of individual strands.The one thing we saw in Roman Art was how it had changed from idealized naturalism of the Greeks to naturalism - men were shown with wrinkles and receding hair lines. Yet there is a sense of idealization in this bust. If we look closely at the neck we get the sense that this is a portrait of an older, maturer woman. Yet her face is smooth without wrinkles or any signs of aging. Her hair is very stylized and we get the sense that this entire image depicts fashion and style. The in itself is not much different from the representation of women today. It seems that even back then when men were portrayed to depict power and strength, women were portrayed to depict the idealized sense of beauty and fashion.
I chose this sculpture because it is that of an old man and that it really represents the realistic or veristic portraiture style during the Republican period. This concept of portraying facial features to the exactness can be seen from the wrinkles on the man’s forehead and around his eyes, the sagging of his skin to the absence of hair. The imperfections of a human face and its closeness to reality mark a big difference from the Greeks and the Augustus period. 
I have chosen this object because I think it is visually very striking.  This sarchophagus is made of marble and its size is 40.5 inches x 91.5 inches x 50.5 inches.  It is highly decorated: what we see is a battle scene between Roman soldiers and the Amazonian women warriors.  It is carved in high relief, which gives the figures a three-dimensional quality.  Indeed, many of the figures are carved in such high relief that they are almost totally disengaged from the sarcophagus.  (Note, for example, how the heads of the soldiers are detached from the main marble) This device is especially effective for depicting a battle scene because it allowed for more naturalistic and dynamic posture of the soldiers, horses, and warriors.  All the figures seem to have this lively and dynamic quality which we normally do not find in Greek sculptures.  In this sarcophagus, we see an example of how Roman aesthetics differ from that of the Greeks: Greek sculptures emphasise on overall calmness and harmony, and mathematical proportions play a great role; Roman sculptures are more dynamic and expressive, and the figures often look as if they were enlivened.  There is a greater degree of emotionality in Roman sculpture.In addition, there is evident use of hierarchic scale in the decoration.  The Roman soldiers are larger than both the Amazonians and their horses.  This deliberate disregard in proportion emphasises the triumph and glory of the victorious Romans, whose victory is shown in the corner of the sarcophagus, where an Amazonian warrior kneels with her hands bound behind her back.  This leads to another interpretation of the object: the use of the sarcophagus as a means of propaganda.  The Roman soldiers are all depicted standing, while some of the women warriors are depicted kneeling with hands bound, or lying dead under a horse.  These depictions clearly show the use of propaganda.  The victory of the Roman soldiers is contrasted with the defeat of the Amazonians.The last characteristic of this object which I find interesting is the imitation of a Roman (or Greek?) temple.  The lid of the sarcophagus is in the shape of a flat prism, and is carved like the pediment of a temple.  And even though we cannot see any columns, the base of this ‘temple’ resembles, in a way, the stylobate of a Greek temple.  Hence, the battle scene decoration could be viewed as a frieze; and the sarcophagus could be seen as a temple without columns?
As we have seen in some of the other medieval works we have looked at this week, this piece is full of colourful, detailed geometric patterns, particularly around the boarders and in the background. There doesn't seem to be any of the animal interlacing that we have seen in other pieces, though there is quite an intricate intertwining of what looks like vines and flowers done primarily in gold leaf.In researching the piece I learned the translation of the text is "The book of the generation of Jesus Christ, the son of David, the son of Abraham." Again we see the letters X P , Chi rho, the first letters of Christ's name.Furthermore, in reading about this particular piece it was suggested that the patterned background is meant to replicate textiles from Byzantium. This shows how important trading of goods and ideas across cultures was during this time, and how it affected the art of each region.
Recumbent Man from Chiusi 500 BCE I was drawn to this Etruscan sculpture initially because of the pose of man. From the material I have learned that the Etruscans were a very interesting society which influenced future generations. They were also unique in their language and culture. I was immediately struck by the confidence and human expression displayed by this figure. He seems to be depicted as a man of importance and status in his society. His robes drape naturalistically over his legs, his expression is relaxed and content. He appears to be seated naturally in the same way that a modern man might recline on a sofa. The sculpture is reminiscent of Greek sculptures in the definition of the abdominal muscles and bone structure in the face but of course is clothed and individualized in a more Roman style. I am left with the following questions:  Did the recumbent pose represent a specific type of individual or role to the Etruscans?  Did funerary sculptures like this depict the subject at the age of their actual death or were they depicted at an ideal age in their life?  Would this scultpure have been painted originally? 
To begin I just want to let everyone know a little background on what Josephs Dream was about, in case some don't know.  T In the bible it says that Joeseph is visited by an angel, while he is sleeping, three times.  The first time it is to tell him not to be afraid to wed Mary,  the second time he is told to leave Bethlehem for Egypt, and the third he is told to return Nazareth. I chose this piece because of the narrative that it tells.  Even if we were unsure of the background tale, we see this man laying in his sleep while and angel comes up to the foot of him, and looks as though he is leaning in to bless the man.  Its interesting to see Joseph being depicted in this stagnate postion, and the angel being so dynamic.  There is a major sense that the angel is leaning into the man just about to tell him something, his foot is placed slightly forward and his arm stretches out towards Joseph.I also took notice to the faces that were on each of the figures.  Joseph, who is asleep, has his eyes closed and a look of concern on his face.  Even though he is asleep, his brow is furrowed, and there is no sense of peace found on him.  The angel, however, has a look of happiness and peace on his face as he leans forward towards Joseph.  It looks almost as if he is about to transfer that feeling of peace to Joseph, because now he is going to have the answers that he needs.I think in this piece as well, we see a great example of Medieval art.  Its broken away from the naturalistic feel that we had seen before in Greek and Roman art, and taken more into a narrative.  There is less concern on making things look humanistic, which we can see in the draping and the positioning of the figures, but to make sure a story is being told.  I think this brings religion to the masses as well.  Even those who can't read are able to get a sense of the religion, and the stories that are being told. 
This is a depiction of the disciple Luke from c. 800., from a gospel book. Identifying this as a piece of Christian Medieval Art is its subject matter (a depiction of one of Christ’s disciples). Another is its plentiful and bold use of color and gold. Gone is the naturalism of Roman art; it maintains more of an illustrative, maybe even slightly cartnoon-ish quality, rather than that of a formal portrait.Also notable is the artist’s use of space – or rather, lack therefore. While the Roman’s were quite comfortable with open spaces and background, Christian and Medieval Art tend to fill every inch of the art with details, colors, and carefully places symbolism. The illustration itself is incased in an elaborate painted frame. Unfortunately, while I am not knowledgeable enough about the intricacies of the Bible’s stories to pick up on all the symbolism used in this piece (such as the winged bull in the upper left), it is clear that every detail in this work is purposeful. The halo represents Luke’s connection to Christ and his holy role in history, and I assume that the scrolls at his feet represent his teachings and contributions to the Bible. 
This is a marble "portrait" of the philosopher Aristotle, who wrote on many subjects and was considered to be a great intellectual of his time (born 384 BCE).  It is thought to be a copy of an original Greek bronze portrait.  The features are "individualized"-probably recognizable- and his face expresses a seriousness or thoughtfulness with a slightly wrinkled brow.  He looks as though he is an older man here as the hair on his forehead is thinning.  These are qualities that the Roman sculptors used rather than the idealized look of Greek sculptures of people.  Wealthy Romans liked to have portraits of men like Aristotle outside of their homes as an indication of their education.  
This is an example of  the use of the medieval cloisonné technique used to decorate an object used for Christian worship. The cross depicts the crucifixion of Christ - naturalism is less important than conveying clearly how his hands and feet were nailed to the cross, hence their larger than expected size.  It is brightly decorated using the cloisonne technique and richly decorated with gold to highlight his body and to frame the scene. As well as following the Medieval artistic style typical of the period, other specific regional stylistic trends are incorporated such as the use of figures in sets of four to represent a group of virtues - in this case we see Hope at the top with a chalice and communion,  Faith on the right with a font, Obedience at the base holding a cross and innocence on the left holding the a sacrificial lamb.
The attractiveness of precious  and ornamental stones does not fade with time- only becomes more desirable and thought after. Many civilizations have given their legends and beliefs into carving these stones. Romans usually took such objects as war trophies. Cameos and intaglios (carved inwards) were on display in the temples of Venus and Apollo.Dioskourides works for the Emperor Augustus and creates this famous Gemma Augustea  :“apart from the Grand Camée in Paris, the Gemma Augustea is the largest surviving cameo from antiquity; its artistic quality makes it the most precious cameo ever created” as it is described by the collectors. This cameo is carved from sardonyx , a  stone that a very experienced carver can make into a relief masterpiece. “Augustus is dressed and posed as Jupiter, holding in his hands the sceptre and augur’s staff. On the emperor’s right sits Roma, the protectress of the city” – this posture alone demonstrates the use of symbolism as well as meticulous attention to detail when portraying the scene 
Unlike the art of Greece (which favored idealized anonymity), the art of Rome embraced the use of narrative and movement. Many of the panels in Roman monuments and arches portrayed historical events with recognizable figures. This marble panel depicts the 31 B.C. naval Battle of Actium, an event which played a significant role in the establishment of the Roman Empire. Typical of Roman art at the time, it serves as a form of propaganda, reminding the population of the strength and grandeur of the Empire. Artistically, it is notable for its use of varying levels of relief to portray dimension and distance.
This buckle dated back from c. 630-640 CE. I choose this subject because it gives us very clear idea of the famous two medieval techniques- the Cloisonne and the Animal Interlace Technique. The upper part of the buckle combines both the cloisonne and the interlace. We can see the little red mounts around the interlace. The cloisonne technique is achieved by separating little spaces on the subject( called cloisons) with the help of  metal plates which are soldering upon the basis.These compartments are fulfilled with enamel and after being many times baked and polished the subject is ready with its separated colorful part of enamel. The main part of the buckle is compose by the so called Animal Interlace Style. It is a representation of serpents with their ribbon-like bodies. It is an abstract image, familiar with its twisted and undulated forms. Although if, at first sight, we see nothing but a mess of intertwined snakes if we look more closely and if we follow each snake we can see that there is an unexpected order in this interlace.
In the centre panel of this triptych, we see the virgin seated on a throne (we see the back of the chair behind her) and Jesus is on her left arm and she points to him with her right. If I were to think of what the gesture signifies, I would say that she is indicating to the world that he is the savior. In keeping with Christian art, the naturalism seems to be less important than the iconic representation. On the two side panels are two saints, as seen by the halo over their heads and their posture seems to suggest that they are paying homage to the virgin and child. The style is very simple, with little effort towards naturalism, one can hardly even make out the outlines of the body under the drapery. Looking at the feet, I am reminded of the mosaic of emperor justinian with his attendants. The feet are splayed and don't seem to sit well of the ground.
A Shabati is a funerary figurine found in tombs among the grave goods and serving as a replacement of the deceased person in performing chores of the afterlife (Wikipedia).It is to be noted that although this item date approaches the end of the Egyptian dynasties timeline it is a typical representation of the Egyptian art traits of the old kingdoms. It is similar in form to the sarcophagus of Tut-Ankh-Amun. The figure bears the the false beared,  the arms are crossed and resting on the chest and it has the hair cover that is different than those worn by the Kings. Below the arms we find inscriptions in hieroglyphic symbols.
This piece was likely inspired from the workshop of Polykleitos, a favourite artist of mine because his Canon is so pinnacle in the history of Western Art and he draws so many influences from his peers and predecessors in other spheres of knowledge.Some scholars have proposed that the works of the Archaic philosopher and mathematician Pythagoras and his followers were a key ideological influence on Polykleitos. Pythagoras was the first individual to associate beauty and nature with numbers. Thus we see concepts such as the 7:1 head to body ratio.  Two main principles of the Canon and contrapposto are commonly attributed to or associated with Pythagoras; rythmos: the unity of movement and form and symmetria: the “commensurability” of all component parts.Another influential figure to Polykleitos could have been Hippocrates. The theory of opposites and balance such as hot, cold, dry, and wet was one of the main ideas in Hippocratic physiology and is clearly demonstrated in the contrapposto of both the Doryphoros and this Herakles, for example the visual dilemma posed to the viewer as to whether the body is stationary or in motion. The advancement in medicine and better comprehension of movement in the human body would surely have been known to Polykleitos and is one of the reasons why Polykleitan figures appear more naturalistic than their archaic counterparts Many interpretations of the Canon allude to the fact that Polykleitos’ tried to achieve the ideal human body through his sculptures. As well as incorporating many numerical calculations into his works, he also integrated the idea that humans were the judge of what is beauty and perfection too, as a result of Periclean optimism and Athenian confidence. The sculptures had to be more lifelike and naturalistic to meet this demand. Polykleitos achieved this by increasing the movement in the body in the form of curves rather than strict horizontal lines. Another method that Polykleitos used was a less stringent employment of stylization compared to his Archaic predecessors. Certainly the Herakles displays a much more naturalistic stance and is less bound by the key constructs of the Canon than the Doryphoros where contrapposto is less clearly defined than in the Doryphoros. This could be an indication of the increasing confidence and popularity in human, rather than abstract idealism.Another way in which contrapposto can be seen as a reflection of the conflict between this need for human idealism and mathematical perfection is the employment of opposites in Polykleitan contrapposto. The use of opposites in the kinesiology of Polykleitos' sculpture was his interpretation and expression of Hippocratic principles of opposites being equated with idealism and health. Opposites can be observed in many different formats: the aforementioned height of various body parts, relaxed and tensed muscles such as the contracted right glutus maximus and the relaxed, ovoid left glutus, the visual contrast of light and darkness formed by shadows , and of course the overall conflict as to whether the figures are stationary or moving.
This bronze v is one of the largest surviving Geometric votive statuettes.  It is on display at the Altes museum in Berlin and is 160 cm. or approximately 5 feet, 3 inches (which is my height!).  It was made in the 8th century, probably near Corinth.  What first struck me about this piece is how bold and also seemingly delicate and almost soft it appears.  I immediately thought it looked a bit Cycladic as it has a simplicity, is not seemingly very realistic at first and also has a certain style that reminds me of the geometric conventions used in Cycladic art.  However, it also reminds me a little bit of Egyptian art as sculpted animals and other things were found in Egyptian tombs so they could hopefully allow the deceased to continue their lives in the afterlife.  This piece also looks as though it is meant to be viewed in profile, like Egyptian painted forms.  When I realized how tall it was, though, and continued to look at it , it looked more and more like it was from Greece as it has some of the stylized look of the leaping bull fresco we saw in one of the videos- with anatomical features, especially emphasis on the musculature of the stallion, the curved tail and pointed pieces on the legs representing a knee and a hock (back leg).  This piece is stunning and full of creative stylized design and I imagine the artisan, a metalworker, was very pleased with it!
 have chosen this Greek art work as we can see some typical greek art features. We see the geometrical pattern, figuers are drawn orange against black background what called "Red painting" and those figueres are drown both anatomically and expresionally, we see ionic colums characterised greek erchitecture.
 I chose Lady Tjepu, ca. 1390-1353 BCE, taken from her funerary tomb.  She is portrayed in the classic Egyptian stance, with her face in profile view, while her torso is in the full frontal view.  Though her legs are not shown, we can assume that her legs are also in the profile view.  In accordance with Egyptian style, Lady Tjepu shows her long, extended fingers and large almond shaped eyes.  What really drew me to this particular piece, was the colors that have been preserved.  We know that the Egyptians liked color and all of their artwork was decorated ornately, but throughout the last 3 thousand years, much of this color has been diminished.  This particular piece, however, has maintained much of its elaborate color, displaying her colorful jewels, tanned skin and dark hair.  In the Ancient Egyptian culture, Egyptians are displayed in an idealistic form, not representing a particular individual, aging or otherwise, but instead made to represent the individual in their prime.  The funerary tombs were made to represent the individual during life, so Egyptians filled it with paintings, scultptures and other pieces that represented the deceased in life.  Lady Tjepu is such an example, representing her in the idealistic way of life, filled with colorful jewels, young and beautiful.
This limestone and paint stele was created as a marker in Zezen-nakht’s tomb.It contains the following artistic conventions of Egyptian art:Relief CarvingRegistersHieratic ScaleConventional Figuration It is a low relief carving, with the background chipped away to create the decorative figures. The objects sit out of the background.The right side of the stele is divided into registers, in which objects are organized. Given that this was created for a tomb, I assume they represent offerings to the Gods as Zezen-nakht passes into the after life. The stele depicts Egyptian hieratic scale, with the figure of Zezen-nakht larger than all objects and therefore the most important & celebrated figure.Finally, this depiction of Zezen-nakht presents conventional Egyptian figuration from that time period. The feet and face are pointed to the right with the torso, shoulders, and eye facing forward
The statue of an athlete, known as the Berlin Athlete is a perfect example of classical Greek sculpture. Differing from the stiffness of Egyptian and early Greek sculpture, the use of contrapposto gives the athlete a more relaxed and naturalistic look. This sculpture also evidences the Greek’s love for the male nude, as we know the Greeks were obsessed with the perfect body, the ideal citizen was one that cared for his body. As well, as all Greek sculpture this is not the portrait of a specific athlete, instead it is the idealization of the athlete, the Greeks were always seeking to depict perfection
This low relief grave piece of stone shows a festivity moment. The hierarchy system is clear by the size of the pharaoh who is much bigger and clearly important. He is receiving gifts and being adored, everybody else in this piece is looking at him. He is being dressed by the others, but they are happy to do this job to the king they adore. We see all pharaoeh' s ornaments. The torso is covered by the armour and the skirt has all wrinckles clearly demonstrated. This last detail together with the free belies and big eyes are signals that this piece belongs to the Armana period. Other egyptian conventions such as the profile faces, eye and torso to the front, strict legs and feet to the side are there, too. And the arms are a little bit longer and sometimes connected to express divinity. The lack of bands in the stone telling the story might show that this piece is a band itself, part of a bigger scenario.
I selected this very sparse Cycladic female figure because it seems to be unique for its age that it is trying to show movement.  The female figure appears to be walking with one leg forward.  The figure is broke at the left arm which implies the figure was connected to another figure.  Although the face and feet are a traditional non human form, an attempt is made to show action and shape of the knee and a waist
This pottery vase bowl belongs to the Archaic Period of Greek art and is in red figure painting. I was personally enchanted with how red figure paintings gave full dimension to the pieces, in contrast to the previous black painting system. This artwork represents the preparation of young men to sports activities and we can see their strong bodies exposed and the interaction among them. This interaction gives a propose that they know each other, they are part of the community. There is a clear admiration of their bodies and virility. The fine lines give life to small details, like hair, eyes, cloth and curving adornements. The sense os instant can be feeled by the movement of the man's foot in the air, quiet unique. Finally, as this is a wine bowl, the top is decorated by functional wine heras, common to the region.
I chose this piece of sculpture because I thought it was a beautiful example of the humanistic approach  in Ancient Greece showing  the human body in its idealised perfected form.  This life sized bronze statue is of a muscular youth in the relaxed contrapposto pose,with one arm raised to his head, apparently crowning himself with an olive wreath for being a victorious athlete in the Olympic Games - his gaze steady and confident. One senses this is a real celebration not only of the perfect  human physical form but also of the capability of human beings for supreme athletic achievement. He is sculpted very naturalistically and this effect would have originally  been emphasised further by the addition of inlays of coloured stones or glass for his eyes, and his nipples and possibly his lips with copper. 
Whats great about Greek art is there willingness to explore with new techniques.  First having pottering done with black figures and a red background, and then reversing the colors to come up with a new technique that would be the red figure style.  This Wine Jar is a great example of the red style figure, and the Greeks testing of a new style of workman ship that ultimately brought more depth to their pottery.  Whats interesting to note is, even though the style and technique has evolved, there are still elements that can take us back to Egyptian art.  The stance of the figures has that same look and stiffness we had seen before, and distinct profile of the faces.  The center figure has the same kind of awkward position, where the torso and body are faced towards the viewer, but the face and arms are pointed towards the vase and in profile.  Yet, because of the color and the amazing work with drapery, there is a such a depth and humanistic feel to the characters of the vase.  Things that Greek artists will evolve even further from this point on.
I choose this architecture monument because we can easily distinguish the two orders we’ve been talking about in our lectures- the Doric and Ionic order. And I think this monument is a perfect example how they both can form one building and how they interact with each other. One the first row we see the typical Doric columns. They are easily recognizable if we look at the slight curve which is given to the shaft of the column (the entasis).We see very clearly the nechking,the echinus and the abacus. On the architrave we have an inscription. And above are the triglyphs and the metopes. On the second row we see more thinner and much taller columns – the Ionic order. As our look goes upward we see the beautiful volute at the top of the column. While the architrave of the Doric order is smooth, here the architrave is stepped. Above that is the so called molding on which we can see a row of carved figures.The propylon ends with a raking cornice with a gable or pediment in the center. Even if we look at the back of the propylon, at its inner side, behind the Ionic style columns, we can see that the columns there look like the Corinthian order with its acanthus leaves, rosettes and volutes.
This sculpture is clearly from the Armana Period since the style is not as static and blocky as it was before. Some of the traditional artistic conventions are still there such as the tubular legs and arms and the elongated toes.However, there is a certain fluidity and softness in the curves which can be seen in the curves of the shoulders and a minimal definition in the torso. The facial features are much more defined with the eyes more almond shaped. What I like about this sculpture is it seems to depict not a king or a pharaoh, but a common man. While he is seated in a way kings and pharaohs were seated in sculptures, there is no carving to be found on the sides of the throne. There is no kingly headdress or beard, rather the only extra thing that is noticeable in this statue is the lotus blossom he holds in his hands. The lotus, being a symbol for Upper Egypt, signifies that this man was from Upper Egypt. The paint on this sculpture still remains intact and it is evident that it was made with a lot of care.
I have chosen this relief for its elegance and beauty, yet as a good example of the main features of the Egyptian Art.In this lower relief carving we see a man and a lady. As lines are refined and smooth and eyes are slightly elongated we might say that this work belongs to a later period of the Egyptian history. We can easly understand that it's the image of the Royal couple as they both wearing headwears with cobras - on of the Royal simbol. By the Hieratic scale she is almost as important as he is. It might be Akhenaten and Nefertiti. Their faces are shown in profile, eyes are facing fully frontal, torso of the lady facing frontal. And both Akhenaten and Nefertiti are shown as perfect creatures with a sense of power
What an absolutely breathtaking piece of sculpture. Without really knowing the story I can sense the emotions being evoked in this piece.  The pose of the main figure is so natural and so real.  And as the description alludes to the pose is not one that you would expect to see of a mother and son, there is a distance. But I chose it more for the incredible folds of her garment. It is extraordinary how the artist captures the delicacy and extravagance of the fabric out of such a fragile hard to use material.  It does seem to be unusual since most of what we have learnt depicts real people rather than stories but I know the Greeks loved to tell such stories and that these artworks were another form through which to tell them. It also seems unusual from what we have learnt that the Greeks most often sculpted nudes.
Most pottery paintings depict scenes or events from the past and this, from its description, is of a wedding. The black and white color of the figures reminds me of the Minoan period where red represented man and white for women. This is in particular contrast on the amphora for the people and the horses, yet also creating balance on each side of the piece. This is therefore somewhat different than other black-figure paintings. The painter focused on creating a naturalistic scene and also paid particular attention to the details, from the people's costumes to the body of the horses. I especially like the patterns on the top and what seem to me like heart-shaped patterns on the handles, making the amphora lively and cheerful almost.
This statue in the Kimbell Art Museum in Texas is a group statue of Ka-Nefer and his family. The figures here are very stiff and rigid as was typical of the period. They are carved into limestone and the hair of the figures appears to still have some of its original paint. Hieratic scale is shown here where Ka-Nefer is depicted as being much larger than his wife and son who are both no taller than his knees. (As an aside, I have found the convention of hieratic scale extremely interesting! Seeing examples of how it carries over into the architecture of the period has been fascinating).
I have chosen this pair statue because it represents some of the major artistic conventions in Egyptian Art from the Old Kingdom.  Found in a rock-cut tomb at Deshasheh, it is a statue of Nen-kheft-ka and his wife, Nefer-shemes.  Several features immediately attract the viewer’s attention.  Firstly, there is a considerable difference between the sizes of the two statues.  The sculptor used hierarchic scale to demonstrate the relative importance of the husband and his wife.  The male figure’s hair is sculpted with remarkable detail, but the absence of headdress and false beard suggests that he is not a royal figure. Also, another distinct feature is that the male figure is painted while the female figure is not.  This typically reflects the ancient Egyptian understanding of gender: men have darker skin because they spend more time in the working in the fields, while women are responsible for domestic tasks.  Moreover, the male figure’s body and hair were painted with different colours while the female figure is left completely unpainted.  This again suggests the relative importance between the two figures.Both figure’s poses are stiff, with their arms resting on the sides.  It is worth noting that the arms are physically attached to the body of the sculpture.  This could be due to the fragility of the material, since the sculpture could break more easily otherwise.  The body of the female figure is outlined using simple curves, albeit still in a rather simplistic manner.  Therefore, it is interesting to compare the level of detail of the facial expression and the depiction of the body. The male figure is sculpted with one foot stepping forward, showing his importance over his wife.  In addition, there is a greater level of detail on his arms when compared to that of the female figure.
I have decided to look into a famous Egyptian artefact – scarab beetle.We are all familiar with this image because it appears very often when Egyptian tombs and archaeological discoveries are made public.This specific image commemorates an important event in the Pharaoh’s life – marriage announcement.  The scarab is engraved with the name of Amunhotep’s III wife – Queen Tiyeca’s title and her parents' names.  What is interesting to mention is that many centuries later, as a result of Napoleon’s campaign in Egypt (1798 )European people became fascinated, amazed and even at places obsessed with Egyptian culture and its symbols, stories and beliefs that were depicted in all sorts of objects and elements. This period was called “Egyptomania” and manifested itself in art, fashion and jewellery produced at that time.Napoleon himself carried a scarab that he had found in Pharaoh’s tomb in Egypt in his pocket, as a good luck charm, as close to the heart as he could.
This is an image which I chose because it is a perfect example of some of the elements that were discussed in class. Firstly, it is funerary art and then the depiction of the two priests is in a way that it adheres perfectly with convention. The figures are rather flat, the torso faces forward, the head is in profile and the eye once again is frontal.What is also interesting is that this is the art of the 14 Century BCE which also saw the end of the Eighteenth Dynasty and the start of the nineteenth. So this is the century when King Akhnaten begins his cult of Aten and where  King Tutankhamun returns to convention
Although this sculpture does not depict every artistic convention used in Egyptian Art - as it was carved 600 years after the Old Kingdom reliefs - it still holds a lot of the significant themes. The statue of the priest is stiff and stylized, yet still conventional – it is not difficult to say he was an important figure. The headdress is visible, and although the false beard is missing this may possibly be signifying that he is not a royal figure. The blocky figures, and the ovular face and its features prove it is a classic Egyptian sculpture. The height of the priest from the woman also marks one’s attention – as in Egypt, scale was used to determine significance of one. Furthermore, the major theme of idealization still holds; both are gazing forward, with smooth faces and proportional bodies. This is more evident when looked at in profile, with the smooth line of Maya’s nose and lips. The elongated feet also grab one’s attention, as this is a common motif in Egyptian sculpture.
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