The Revolution of 1932: 90 years later - Part 1

The armed conflict that took place in São Paulo during the Constitutionalist Revoltion of '32

By Centro de Memória-Unicamp

July 9th (1932-08-20) by UnidentifiedCentro de Memória-Unicamp

Constitutionalist Revolution, 1932 Revolution, Civil War, Paulista War, Constitutionalist Movement. There are many terms used to name the political, social, economic and military events that took place in the State of São Paulo between July and October 1932. 

Regardless of the historiographical current, it was one of the largest armed movements ever to take place in Brazilian territory, especially if one considers the popular mobilization that it entailed.

O Cruzeiro Magazine (1930-11-08)Centro de Memória-Unicamp

Its origin dates back to the so-called Revolution of 1930, which put an end to the Old Republic, instituting the dictatorship of Getúlio Vargas and convening the National Constituent Assembly.

Martins, Miragaia, Drauzio and Camargo, the martyrs of the Constitutionalist Movement of 1932Centro de Memória-Unicamp

Its trigger, however, would have been May 23, 1932. On that date, academic groups from the Largo São Francisco Law School attacked the headquarters of the Popular Paulista Party and, during the clash,  four young people were murdered : Mário Martins de Almeida, Euclides Bueno Miragaia, Dráusio Marcondes de Souza and Antônio Américo Camargo de Andrade.

Brooch by UnidentifiedCentro de Memória-Unicamp

Considered martyrs of the movement, the initials of their names gave rise to the acronym MMDC, which gave its name to an organized movement that sought to overthrow the Getúlio Vargas government.

Piracicaba volunteers upon boarding (1934)Centro de Memória-Unicamp

The movement started on July 9, with the support of military and civilians. The state of São Paulo then had the support of Minas Gerais, Rio Grande do Sul and the southern region of Mato Grosso. 

Constitutionalist Soldier, Unidentified, 1932, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
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Troops of the Constitutionalist Revolution, Unidentified, 1932, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
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Open letter from Alberto Santos Dumont to his countrymen as a result of the Constitutionalist Movement of 1932 (1932-09-14) by Alberto Santos DumontCentro de Memória-Unicamp

Open letter from Alberto Santos Dumont to his countrymen as a result of the Constitutionalist Movement of 1932.

1932 Volunteers (1932) by UnidentifiedCentro de Memória-Unicamp

Nurses of the Fernão Salles battalion (1933)Centro de Memória-Unicamp

During the movement, different layers of the population were mobilized. Even women (not only as nurses or seamstresses as usual, but as soldiers included) and children were involved.

Steel helmet factory with working women and children by UnidentifiedCentro de Memória-Unicamp

The work of women and children in the factories, such as those making helmets, stands out.

Steel helmet, Unidentified, 1932, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
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Steel helmet, Unidentified, 1932, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
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Participation of Boy Scouts in the Constitutionalist Movement of 1932, Unidentified, 1932, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
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Children dressed as Constitutionalist soldiers, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
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Children's groups who became involved in the Constitutionalist Movement of 1932, 1935, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
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First aid kit (1932) by UnidentifiedCentro de Memória-Unicamp

Collaboration offer letter (14 Jul. 1932) by José Dalmo Fairbanks Belfort de MattosCentro de Memória-Unicamp

An intense arms production campaign was also launched with the creation of companies, such as the Companhia Manufactora de Bombas de Fumaça, owned by José Rangel Belfort de Mattos.

Declaration (24 ago. 1932) by Henrique Jorge GuedesCentro de Memória-Unicamp

Hand grenade, Unidentified, 1932, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
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Loading blade cartridges, Unidentified, 1932, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
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Soldiers on the battlefield - machine guns in the southern sector (1932) by Não identificadoCentro de Memória-Unicamp

Bayonet (1932) by GermanyCentro de Memória-Unicamp

Saber-bayonet of the German Mauser rifle, manufactured by Weyesberg Kirschbaum & CO - Solingen. It has a double blade, a wooden dagger with a weapon socket on the side and a leather sheath with bronze decoration.

July 9th, 1932 (1932) by UnidentifiedCentro de Memória-Unicamp

In addition, a large propaganda campaign was organized, with the objective of encouraging not only the enlistment of combatants, but also the commitment of the people of São Paulo who organized themselves by giving financial support to the movement.

Cover of "A Cigarra" magazine, Unidentified, 1932, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
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Cover of "A Cigarra" magazine, Unidentified, 1932, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
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Gold Campaign for the good of São Paulo, Unidentified, 1932, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
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Ring of the Donate Gold campaign for the good of São Paulo, Unidentified, 1932, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
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Letter from the São Paulo Commercial Association requesting support for the Gold Campaign, 1932-08-13, From the collection of: Centro de Memória-Unicamp
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Delivery of donations during the Gold CampaignCentro de Memória-Unicamp

Gold for the good of São Paulo (1932-08) by UnidentifiedCentro de Memória-Unicamp

Authorities and soldiers at the front (1932) by UnidentifiedCentro de Memória-Unicamp

Losing support from these states for political reasons in September 1932, São Paulo saw its movement backfire. The Força Pública deposed the revolutionary government of São Paulo, putting an end to the movement. 

To this day discussed from controversial reasons and consequences, the movement of less than 90 days resulted in hundreds of deaths. Many of those involved lost their political rights and some were even deported from the country. It was the end of the movement, but not of its political and symbolic legacy.

To learn more, continue to Part 2

Credits: Story

DIRECTOR
Prof. Dr. André Luiz Paulilo

ASSOCIATE DIRECTOR
Dra. Maria Silvia Duarte Hadler

CURATORIAL PROJECT AND TEXTS
Ana Cláudia Cermaria
João Paulo Berto

RECORDS SELECTION
Fernanda de Toledo Lopes
Gabrielle Caroline dos Santos Garcia
Matheus José de Souza Dias

TRANSLATION AND TEXT REVIEW
Marileide Rayane de Macedo da Silva

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
Eric Lucian Apolinário

REALIZATION
Centro de Memória-UNICAMP

July, 2022

Credits: All media
The story featured may in some cases have been created by an independent third party and may not always represent the views of the institutions, listed below, who have supplied the content.
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