They were children

DEPORTATION AND RESCUE OF JEWISH CHILDREN IN PARIS, 1940-1945

"In July 1942, nearly 14,000 Parisians were arrested by French police and, for the most part, assembled at the Vélodrome d’Hiver, simply because they were Jewish. Among them were many children. More than half of the 11,400 Jewish children deported from France between 1942 and 1944 were Parisians. Now, in 2012, on the 70th anniversary of the 'rafle du Vél d’Hiv' [Vel' d'Hiv Round-up], our town wants to honor their memory. We also want to remember the thousands of "hidden" children who survived the Shoah thanks to the actions of rescue networks and the solidarity of Parisians who embodied the honor of our capital city. Thus, this exhibition is the crowning achievement of the commemoration work led by the city for many years. It continues the transmission and preservation work undertaken by the many organizations who, in each arrondissement, have restored the deported children's names, memories, stories and dignity. Let this exhibition be a call to the fidelity of memory, vigilance and responsibility. Bertrand Delanoë"

"En cette année 2012, soixante-dixième anniversaire de la rafle du Vél d’Hiv, notre ville a voulu honorer leur souvenir. Elle souhaite également évoquer ces milliers d’enfants « cachés » qui ont survécu à la Shoah, grâce à l’action de réseaux de sauvetage ou à la solidarité de Parisiens qui incarnèrent l’honneur de notre capitale.

Cette exposition couronne ainsi le travail de mémoire conduit par la Ville depuis de nombreuses années. Elle poursuit l’œuvre de transmission et de préservation menée par de nombreuses associations qui, dans chaque arrondissement, ont redonné aux enfants déportés un nom, une mémoire, une histoire, une dignité. Puisse cette exposition être un appel à la fidélité du souvenir, à la vigilance et à la responsabilité." Bertrand Delanoë

IDENTIFICATION ET EXCLUSION

" IDENTIFICATION AND EXCLUSION The armistice of June 22, 1940, divided France in two. Paris, and therefore the majority of France's Jews, were located in the northern zone. From September 1940, the occupying authorities and the Vichy government organized the stigmatization of the Jews. French laws and German rulings defined who were Jews before identifying and locating them. Then, they were excluded from economical and cultural life. Most of these measures affected not only adults, but also children. Thus, they marked a radical break from the protective provisions that children had increasingly benefitted from in Europe since the eighteenth century. "

Certificat de non-appartenance à la race juive, 1944, From the collection of: City of Paris
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Ordonnance de la prefecture de Police du 24 août 1942, 1942, From the collection of: City of Paris
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ARRESTATION ET DÉPORTATION

" ARREST AND DEPORTATION In total, more than 6,100 children were arrested in Paris during the Shoah, mainly by the city police. Most of these were deported to the Auschwitz camp in Poland where they were exterminated upon arrival. Being a child of interned parents The first Parisian round-ups took place during 1941. They led to the arrest of nearly 8,200 people, exclusively men and almost all foreigners. The internment of many of these fathers resulted in further material and psychological difficulties for their families. Sometimes it had the tragic consequence that children were left alone."

Être un enfant d’interné

Les premières rafles parisiennes ont lieu au cours de l’année 1941. Elles conduisent à l’arrestation de près de 8 200 personnes, exclusivement des hommes et presque tous étrangers. L’internement de ces pères de famille plonge leurs familles dans des difficultés matérielles et psychologiques supplémentaires. Il signifie parfois que les enfants sont brutalement laissés seuls.

Lettre des enfants Rotgold, 1942, From the collection of: City of Paris
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Carte adressée par Leizer-Léon Miliband, interné aucamp de Beaune-la-Rolande dans le Loiret, à sa fille Simone, 1942, From the collection of: City of Paris
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André Panczer, From the collection of: City of Paris
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Photographie de classe de Monique Szmulewicz, From the collection of: City of Paris
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SOLIDARITÉ ET SAUVETAGE

SOLIDARITY AND RESCUE

It was in Paris that the fate of most Jewish children deported from France was decided. Beyond its scale, the 'rafle du Vél d’Hiv' [Vél d’Hiv round-up] marked a turning point. On the one hand, it definitively sealed the fate of Jews aged under 16. On the other hand, due to the reactions that it provoked, it opened the door to opposition to this radical extermination project. On their landings, in their apartment buildings, in their streets, Parisians noticed these sudden disappearances – and were sometimes witness to violent arrests by the French police – not just of men, but also of women and above all children. These scenes sparked reactions of solidarity amongst the non-Jewish population who, until then, had been indifferent to, sometimes content with, the situation for Jews. Jewish social organizations – which, for several months now, had supported families whose situations had continued to deteriorate – could now build upon these displays of sympathy to achieve the now collective objective: to save the children.

Ces scènes suscitent plusieurs réactions de solidarité au sein d’une population non juive jusque- là indifférente, parfois satisfaite, de la situation faite aux Juifs. Les œuvres sociales juives– qui, depuis plusieurs mois déjà, prennent en charge des familles dont la situation n’a cessé de se dégrader – peuvent désormais prendre appui sur ces manifestations de sympathie pour poursuivre l’objectif qui s’impose dès lors à tous : sauver les enfants.

photographie de Simon Mangel et son frère, From the collection of: City of Paris
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Myriam et Régina Pejsakowicz, From the collection of: City of Paris
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SURVIVRE ET GRANDIR

"SURVIVING AND GROWING UP In Paris, like across the whole of France, around 80% of Jewish children survived the war. It is generally estimated that 10,000 of them were kept alive as a result of being taken in by Jewish rescue networks, supported by non-Jews. However, it is difficult to come up with an exact figure. A quantitative estimate is even more difficult in relation to the acts of solidarity offered by this or that neighbor, friend or classmate. Finally, many children lived through the war alongside their parents who managed to stay at home in Paris throughout. The experiences of Jewish children who survived the war in France are therefore quite diverse."

Baigneur ayant appartenu à Francine Chistophe, From the collection of: City of Paris
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Enfin, de nombreux enfants ont traversé la guerre en compagnie de leurs parents qui sont parfois même restés chez eux à Paris pendant toute la guerre. Le vécu des enfants juifs qui ont survécu à la guerre en France est donc pluriel.

Objets remis par le père de Robert Frank à son fils lors de leur séparation, From the collection of: City of Paris
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Credits: Story

—Amicale des anciens et sympathisants de l’OSE

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