This is the cover of the license application sent by mining engineer Ernesto Deligny for the Tharsis mine, in the municipality of Alosn municipality of Alosno.
The richness and mineral diversity of the subsoil in the north of the province of Huelva made mining the region's main sector of production. These resources have been mined since prehistoric times, and the Tartessos copper mines are legendary.
But it wasn't until the mid-19th century that mining started back up—even if in a scattered way—with underground operations carried out by individual Spaniards, with limited means and results.
With the arrival of foreign capital, mining activity became more consistent. Having been key to the region's social, economic, and cultural development, its influence can now be seen in all aspects of life in the province.
French engineer and mining director Ernesto Deligny was one of the first people to lay the foundations for large-scale underground mining and pioneered operations at the Tharsis mines by creating a company for the purpose in 1853.
He was a partner at the Huelva Copper Mines Company and founder of the Alosno Copper Mines Partnership.
Mining activity restarted in the province of Huelva thanks to his work, and he was awarded the title of Count of Alosno for his efforts.
Concession Application for the Tharsis Iron Mine Front Cover of Document (1853-03-26)Andalusian Archives