The Netherlands, often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million. Together with three island territories in the Caribbean, it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve provinces and borders Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, sharing maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium, the United Kingdom, and Germany. The five largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague, Utrecht and Eindhoven. Amsterdam is the country's capital, while The Hague holds the seat of the States General, Cabinet and Supreme Court. The Port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe and the world's largest outside Asia.
"Netherlands" literally means "lower countries", influenced by its low land and flat geography, with only about 50% of its land exceeding 1 metre above sea level. Most of the areas below sea level are artificial. Since the late 16th century, large areas have been reclaimed from the sea and lakes, amounting to nearly 17% of the country's current land mass.