Tachibana Muneshige, known in his youth as Senkumamaru and alternatively called Tachibana Munetora, was a samurai during the Azuchi–Momoyama period and an Edo-period daimyō. Toyotomi Hideyoshi noted that were Honda Tadakatsu is best samurai in 'east japan', Muneshige is the best samurai in the 'west japan'.
He was the eldest biological son of Takahashi Shigetane, a retainer of Ōtomo clan. He was adopted by Tachibana Dōsetsu, and later married his daughter Tachibana Ginchiyo, succeeding the Tachibana clan.
In 1600, at Sekigahara campaign, he sided to 'Western army'. However, Muneshige surrendered at Siege of Yanagawa under the assumption that he could then switch sides and aid the Tokugawa-loyal forces against the Shimazu clan of Satsuma.
In 1637, Muneshige served in the shogunate army at the Shimabara Rebellion, a revolt involving mostly Japanese peasants, most of them Catholics.