Unearthing Philadelphia

This exhibit features archeological artifacts from the late 1700s that were uncovered at the site of the National Constitution Center, only two blocks from Independence Hall.

By National Constitution Center

The historic treasures featured in this exhibit—once items of everyday use—illuminate daily life in Philadelphia as a new nation was being born.

Map of Philadelphia (1797) by John HillsOriginal Source: Library of Congress

Philadelphia 1787

By 1787, when the Framers drafted and signed the U.S. Constitution, Philadelphia had emerged as a cultured city of 43,000—the second largest English-speaking city in the world after London. As the port city rebuilt its shattered economy after the Revolutionary War, it would return to its prominence as a thriving manufacturing center with plentiful jobs and booming trade. Where the Center now stands, a complex neighborhood of people from varied economic, religious, and ethnic backgrounds, including a vibrant free African-American community, occupied the block. Professionals, immigrants, and laborers lived and worked here—leaving behind objects that help tell their stories.

Brick-lined Privy Pit (2003) by National Park ServiceNational Constitution Center

Uncovering the Past

The artifacts featured in this exhibit were excavated during the construction of the National Constitution Center from 2000 to 2003. Archeologists found nearly one million artifacts—everyday objects that illustrate daily life in Philadelphia during the late 1700s. They occupied trash deposits, privy pits, and wells for over 200 years before being discovered. Click on each of the following artifacts to learn more!

Quintal VaseOriginal Source: Independence National Historical Park, National Park Service

Housewares

With the emergence of consumer culture and growing trade, various housewares were available. Philadelphians purchased a mixture of locally made goods and generally more expensive imports. While wealthy households could afford more imported items and matching sets of dishes, inexpensive dishware might still be used in the kitchen and by servants.

Benjamin Franklin Bowl, Original Source: Independence National Historical Park, National Park Service
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Green Plate Fragment, Original Source: Independence National Historical Park, National Park Service
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Wine Bottle Seal, 1750, Original Source: Independence National Historical Park, National Park Service
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Miniature Jug, Original Source: Independence National Historical Park, National Park Service
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Coin Bank, Original Source: Independence National Historical Park, National Park Service
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Ointment JarOriginal Source: Independence National Historical Park, National Park Service

Personal Items

While Philadelphians in the 1700s would not measure up to our standards of personal hygiene, they still cared about their appearance—often dressing up outfits with personal adornments. Head lice were always a concern, especially for those who wore wigs. Since baths were few and far between, early Americans used perfume to mask odors.

Chamber Pot, Original Source: Independence National Historical Park, National Park Service
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Cowrie Shells, Original Source: Independence National Historical Park, National Park Service
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Monogrammed Toothbrush, Original Source: Independence National Historical Park, National Park Service
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Bone Buttons, Original Source: Independence National Historical Park, National Park Service
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Corset Stay, Original Source: Independence National Historical Park, National Park Service
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CrucibleOriginal Source: Independence National Historical Park, National Park Service

Work & Commerce

In the neighborhood where the Constitution Center now stands, just a few blocks from Independence Hall, people practiced a variety of trades. Many even worked where they lived. The residents earned their livings as doctors, merchants, laborers, and teachers. Other workers contributed to the city by constructing buildings and manufacturing goods such as shoes or buttons.

Cupping Glass, Original Source: Independence National Historical Park, National Park Service
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Plate and Potter's Slip Cup, Original Source: Independence National Historical Park, National Park Service
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Bowl, Original Source: Independence National Historical Park, National Park Service
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Pins, Original Source: Independence National Historical Park, National Park Service
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Connecticut Coin, 1787, Original Source: Independence National Historical Park, National Park Service
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Child's CupOriginal Source: Independence National Historical Park, National Park Service

Children

Today’s concept of childhood did not exist in the 1700s. Objects that look like toys usually served an instructive purpose. Smaller versions of adult items, such as thimbles and dishes, would prepare little girls for adult responsibilities. However, children still found time for fun, often playing with homemade toys.

Hornbook, Original Source: Independence National Historical Park, National Park Service
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Miniature Bowl, Original Source: Independence National Historical Park, National Park Service
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Toy Boat, Original Source: Independence National Historical Park, National Park Service
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Bird-shaped Whistle, Original Source: Independence National Historical Park, National Park Service
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Miniature Plate, Original Source: Independence National Historical Park, National Park Service
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Gaming PiecesOriginal Source: Independence National Historical Park, National Park Service

Amusement

Between work, school, and tending to the household, not much time was left for fun—particularly for working people. Tavern amusements, including smoking pipes, gambling, and drinking alcohol, served as favorite pastimes for men. Women often gathered at each other’s homes to visit while mending clothing or practicing needlework.

Marbles and Dominoes, Original Source: Independence National Historical Park, National Park Service
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Gaming Pieces, Original Source: Independence National Historical Park, National Park Service
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Clay Pipe Fragment, Original Source: Independence National Historical Park, National Park Service
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Thimbles, Original Source: Independence National Historical Park, National Park Service
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Liberty TumblerOriginal Source: Independence National Historical Park, National Park Service

From Trash to Treasure

The artifacts in this exhibit occupied trash deposits, privy pits, and wells for over 200 years before archeologists uncovered them. Today, these everyday objects illuminate the past—highlighting life in Philadelphia during the nation’s founding. What would your trash say about you in 200 years?

Credits: Story

This exhibit was developed by the National Constitution Center for its main exhibition gallery. All artifacts are courtesy of Independence National Historical Park Collection, Philadelphia, PA.

Some of these artifacts have been digitally scanned; the 3D models can be accessed here.

Credits: All media
The story featured may in some cases have been created by an independent third party and may not always represent the views of the institutions, listed below, who have supplied the content.
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