The heritage: Mining in Saarland - Part III

Milestones, Two worlds, Come, go, stay

By State Chancellery Saarland

Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes, Öffentlichkeitsarbeit

Das Erbe, 250 Jahre Bergbau im Saarland

 Ministerpräsidentin Anke Rehlinger zur Ausstellung.

Milestones by Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Milestones

Discoveries were made around the Saar which have advanced development of mining engineering all over Europe. The „coal face saturation process“ helped to reduce the hazards of firedamp and coal dust explosions. The „Draeger 1904“ respirator once again represented a milestone in increasing mine safety. It was developed at the Camphausen pit for the specific requirements of the Saar miners and is considered the prototype of the Draeger respirators which are used in mining to this day.

Design drawing of a pit safety lamp from the Saarbrücken weather lamp factory Max Höller, 1905 by Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Description of an electric safety lamp from AEG Berlin by Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Cross-section drawing of a cable connection piece as a safety device for the transportation of goods by Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Dräger breathing apparatus BG 160A for the mine rescue team by Bergmannsverein Fischbach-Camphausen and Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Display cabinet with steel rope sections by Steffi Groß-Hanke, Saarbrücken and Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Upper rope from the Duhamel shaft by Guido Wolff, Saarbrücken and Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Upper rope from the Duhamel shaft by Guido Wolff, Saarbrücken and Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Ground-breaking ceremony at Camphausen shaft IV by Bergmannsverein Fischbach-Camphausen and Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Shaft IV winding tower of Camphausen pit by IndustrieKultur Saar GmbH, Göttelborn and Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Mining, iron works and saltworks atlas 1897 by Delf Slotta, Bischmisheim and Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Rescue basket by RAG, Saarbrücken and Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Coal refining by Markus Körbel, Saarbrücken and Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Paperweight: Oil made from coal by Markus Körbel, Saarbrücken and Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Two worlds by Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Two worlds

As otherwise only in the military, the world under ground was practically exclusively shaped by men. Although there were already female mine owners and even female coal miners in Early Modern mining around the Saar, these women remained rather an exception. Following the prohibition of women‘s work under ground (in Prussia in 1828), female activity in the production process of mines remained restricted to surface installations (such as for example on slag heaps, on sorting conveyors or in coal washing). Women were however also only employed here to any significant As the „conventional“ counterpart to the „male“ mine work, mining women were increasingly brought up for their role as housewives and mothers. Women were often also required to cater for part-time agriculture though and frequently worked in own private homes near the pits as landladies of the privately rented accommodation too.

Title page of the company magazine "Schacht und Heim", March 1958 by Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Commemorative float at the parade for the "Week of European miners" in Saarbrücken, August 1952 by Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Presentation on employment of women and men underground 1869 Presentation on employment of women and men underground 1869 by Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Regina Cristina Hoffmanin, lessee of the Dudweiler pit, signs her name in 1746 (fourth signature from above). by Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Portrait of a pit foreman from an album of the Dechen pit, 1880s by Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Men from the miner colonies also visited the Saarbrücken Castle for the twenty-fifth anniversary of the battle of Spichern. by Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

The Saarland mining family by Elfriede Drexel, Schmelz and Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Lunch box by Horst Schmadel, Seingbouse (F) and Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Water bottle with garden string by Gunter Altenkirch, Gersheim-Rubenheim and Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Shift bag by Gunter Altenkirch, Gersheim-Rubenheim and Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Shot glass by Delf Slotta, Bischmisheim and Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Two bottles of schnapps Two bottles of schnapps by Gunter Altenkirch, Gersheim-Rubenheim and Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Mining school book Mining school book by Rüdiger Ankele, Merten (F) and Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Homecrafts school by RAG Bildarchiv, Saarbrücken and Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Women in the kitchen by RAG Bildarchiv, Saarbrücken and Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Cleaning ladies of Velsen pit Cleaning ladies of Velsen pit by Horst Schmadel, Seingbouse (F) and Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Miner widows as chefs by Horst Schmadel, Seingbouse (F) and Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Tea infuser for 200 litres of tea by Gunter Altenkirch, Gersheim-Rubenheim and Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Pressure cooker by Historisches Museum Saar and Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Baking tins by Heimatmuseum Steinbach and Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Coffee tin by Heimatmuseum Steinbach and Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Mother with children by Heimatmuseum Steinbach and Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Female family members by Heimatmuseum Steinbach and Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Village street with children by Heimatmuseum Steinbach and Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Female workers at Velsen pit by Landesarchiv Saarbrücken and Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Anna shaft female workers by Landesarchiv Saarbrücken and Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Certificate – Honour Cross for German mothers by Horst Schmadel, Seingbouse (F) and Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Come, go, stay by Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Come, go, stay

Since the 1840‘s, many attempts had been made to also acquire miners from more distant regions. In order to bind the foreign miners to their new workplace, the Prussian Mining Administration developed a comprehensive settlement scheme at the initiative of the Saarbrücken mining office director, Leopold Sello (1785 –1874) which included both dormitories and bonus houses and building of miners‘ colonies. Favourable mortgages and bonuses, which were however dependent on the good conduct of the house builders, offered miners the opportunity of building their own home with a small garden. Some leased a room in their own home to miners seeking lodging. With extension of the transport network since the 1870‘s, the number of weekly commuters decreased and the area from which labour could be recruited expanded at the same time.

Sleeping quarters at Luisenthal pit in Altenkessel, 1920s by Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Outline of different apartments for miners, 19th century by Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Work shoes by Gunter Altenkirch, Gersheim-Rubenheim and Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Shoes for hardened walkers by Gunter Altenkirch, Gersheim-Rubenheim and Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Application for a hardened walker path by Landesarchiv Saarbrücken and Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

House rules for sleeping quarters 1875 by Landesarchiv Saarbrücken and Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Bag for sleeping quarters by Gunter Altenkirch, Gersheim-Rubenheim and Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Towel by Gunter Altenkirch, Gersheim-Rubenheim and Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Room in sleeping quarters by RAG Bildarchiv, Saarbrücken and Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Melin pit sleeping quarters by Landesarchiv Saarbrücken and Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Valuation of the miner Heinrich Gottschall, elevation, floor plan and building description by Stefan Weszkalnys, Saarbrücken and Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Mould and rammers for gallop stones by Gunter Altenkirch, Gersheim-Rubenheim and Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

3 blueprints of the miner premium houses in 1880 3 blueprints of the miner premium houses in 1880 by Historisches Museum Saar and Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Elversberg miner houses by Landesbildstelle Saarland im LPM and Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Premium house construction with workers and family Premium house construction with workers and family by Heimatmuseum Steinbach and Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Madenfelderhof by RAG Bildarchiv, Saarbrücken and Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Fischbach miner colony by Landesbildstelle Saarland im LPM and Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Map of miners' houses by Landesarchiv Saarbrücken and Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Mining festival by Horst Schmadel, Seingbouse (F) and Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Marching band by RAG Bildarchiv, Saarbrücken and Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Articles of Association of the Catholic Mining and Iron Works Workers' Association by Horst Schmadel, Seingbouse (F) and Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Three miner's hats Three miner's hats by Saarländisches Bergbaumuseum Bexbach and Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Mining Health Insurance Association by Historisches Museum Saar and Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Gymnastics club by Heimatmuseum Quierschied and Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Flag of the Camphausen royal coal pit Flag of the Camphausen royal coal pit by Bergmannsverein Fischbach-Camphausen and Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Flag of the Fraulautern Miners' Association Flag of the Fraulautern Miners' Association by Berg- und Hüttenarbeiterverein ›St. Barbara‹ Saarlouis-Fraulautern 1861 e.V. and Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Barbara Fraternity Schiffweiler Association flag Barbara Fraternity Schiffweiler Association flag by St. Barbara Verein Schiffweiler and Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Flag of the Fraulautern Miners' Association by Berg- und Hüttenarbeiterverein ›St. Barbara‹ Saarlouis-Fraulautern 1861 e.V. and Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Flag of the Fraulautern Miners' Association by Berg- und Hüttenarbeiterverein ›St. Barbara‹ Saarlouis-Fraulautern 1861 e.V. and Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

And he has his bright light at night by Saarländischer Rundfunk, Saarbrücken and Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Bunk bed from sleeping quarters by Saarländisches Bergbaumuseum Bexbach and Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

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