The heritage: Mining in Saarland - Part III

Milestones, Two worlds, Come, go, stay

By State Chancellery Saarland

Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes, Öffentlichkeitsarbeit

zur virtuellen Ausstellung "Das Erbe", die Ministerpräsidentin by Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Coal production in Saarland came to an end in 2012 after over 250 years. This was a defining moment for Saarland because it was almost impossible to imagine the federal state without the mining industry. The ups and downs of the entire federal state were closely linked to coal. Mining played a major role in the lives of almost all families in Saarland, with either a relative or an ancestor having worked in the industry. The fact that coal mining gave our state its own identity is largely thanks to the people who worked in it: the Saarland miners. They laid the foundations for economic development in Saarland and provided momentum for the 'economic miracle' in Germany with their hard work, influencing our state, its values and its cohesion like no other occupational group. The camaraderie and solidarity among miners was the model for the sense of community among people in Saarland. We are now faced with the task of keeping the memories of the mining industry alive. It is important to preserve the knowledge of the mining roots of our state and to pass this knowledge on, especially to young people. The virtual state exhibition DAS ERBE (the heritage) plays a central role in this culture of remembrance. We want this to highlight the special importance of the period characterised by the mining industry for the current and future Saarland society. The DAS ERBE exhibition focuses on miners, their lives, families and culture, their influence on togetherness in Saarland, and on what remains after the end of coal mining, rather than on machinery and mining towers. The exhibition highlights just how rich and varied the heritage of miners is for our state.
I hope that visitors to the "DAS ERBE" exhibition at the Open Gallery of the Google Cultural Institute in the Saarland State Chancellery learn something new about mining in Saarland and are able to gain a better understanding of work underground.

Milestones by Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Milestones

Discoveries were made around the Saar which have advanced development of mining engineering all over Europe. The „coal face saturation process“ helped to reduce the hazards of firedamp and coal dust explosions. The „Draeger 1904“ respirator once again represented a milestone in increasing mine safety. It was developed at the Camphausen pit for the specific requirements of the Saar miners and is considered the prototype of the Draeger respirators which are used in mining to this day.

Design drawing of a pit safety lamp from the Saarbrücken weather lamp factory Max Höller, 1905 by Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Description of an electric safety lamp from AEG Berlin by Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Cross-section drawing of a cable connection piece as a safety device for the transportation of goods by Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Dräger breathing apparatus BG 160A for the mine rescue team by Bergmannsverein Fischbach-CamphausenState Chancellery Saarland

Display cabinet with steel rope sections by Steffi Groß-Hanke, SaarbrückenState Chancellery Saarland

Upper rope from the Duhamel shaft by Guido Wolff, SaarbrückenState Chancellery Saarland

Upper rope from the Duhamel shaft by Guido Wolff, SaarbrückenState Chancellery Saarland

Ground-breaking ceremony at Camphausen shaft IV by Bergmannsverein Fischbach-CamphausenState Chancellery Saarland

Shaft IV winding tower of Camphausen pit by IndustrieKultur Saar GmbH, GöttelbornState Chancellery Saarland

Mining, iron works and saltworks atlas 1897 by Delf Slotta, BischmisheimState Chancellery Saarland

Rescue basket by RAG, SaarbrückenState Chancellery Saarland

Coal refining by Markus Körbel, SaarbrückenState Chancellery Saarland

Paperweight: Oil made from coal by Markus Körbel, SaarbrückenState Chancellery Saarland

Two worlds by Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Two worlds

As otherwise only in the military, the world under ground was practically exclusively shaped by men. Although there were already female mine owners and even female coal miners in Early Modern mining around the Saar, these women remained rather an exception. Following the prohibition of women‘s work under ground (in Prussia in 1828), female activity in the production process of mines remained restricted to surface installations (such as for example on slag heaps, on sorting conveyors or in coal washing). Women were however also only employed here to any significant As the „conventional“ counterpart to the „male“ mine work, mining women were increasingly brought up for their role as housewives and mothers. Women were often also required to cater for part-time agriculture though and frequently worked in own private homes near the pits as landladies of the privately rented accommodation too.

Title page of the company magazine "Schacht und Heim", March 1958 by Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Commemorative float at the parade for the "Week of European miners" in Saarbrücken, August 1952 by Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Presentation on employment of women and men underground 1869 Presentation on employment of women and men underground 1869 by Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Regina Cristina Hoffmanin, lessee of the Dudweiler pit, signs her name in 1746 (fourth signature from above). by Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Portrait of a pit foreman from an album of the Dechen pit, 1880s by Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Men from the miner colonies also visited the Saarbrücken Castle for the twenty-fifth anniversary of the battle of Spichern. by Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

The Saarland mining family by Elfriede Drexel, SchmelzState Chancellery Saarland

Lunch box by Horst Schmadel, Seingbouse (F)State Chancellery Saarland

Water bottle with garden string by Gunter Altenkirch, Gersheim-RubenheimState Chancellery Saarland

Shift bag by Gunter Altenkirch, Gersheim-RubenheimState Chancellery Saarland

Shot glass by Delf Slotta, BischmisheimState Chancellery Saarland

Two bottles of schnapps Two bottles of schnapps by Gunter Altenkirch, Gersheim-RubenheimState Chancellery Saarland

Mining school book Mining school book by Rüdiger Ankele, Merten (F)State Chancellery Saarland

Homecrafts school by RAG Bildarchiv, SaarbrückenState Chancellery Saarland

Women in the kitchen by RAG Bildarchiv, SaarbrückenState Chancellery Saarland

Cleaning ladies of Velsen pit Cleaning ladies of Velsen pit by Horst Schmadel, Seingbouse (F)State Chancellery Saarland

Miner widows as chefs by Horst Schmadel, Seingbouse (F)State Chancellery Saarland

Tea infuser for 200 litres of tea by Gunter Altenkirch, Gersheim-RubenheimState Chancellery Saarland

Pressure cooker by Historisches Museum SaarState Chancellery Saarland

Baking tins by Heimatmuseum SteinbachState Chancellery Saarland

Coffee tin by Heimatmuseum SteinbachState Chancellery Saarland

Mother with children by Heimatmuseum SteinbachState Chancellery Saarland

Female family members by Heimatmuseum SteinbachState Chancellery Saarland

Village street with children by Heimatmuseum SteinbachState Chancellery Saarland

Female workers at Velsen pit by Landesarchiv SaarbrückenState Chancellery Saarland

Anna shaft female workers by Landesarchiv SaarbrückenState Chancellery Saarland

Certificate – Honour Cross for German mothers by Horst Schmadel, Seingbouse (F)State Chancellery Saarland

Come, go, stay by Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Come, go, stay

Since the 1840‘s, many attempts had been made to also acquire miners from more distant regions. In order to bind the foreign miners to their new workplace, the Prussian Mining Administration developed a comprehensive settlement scheme at the initiative of the Saarbrücken mining office director, Leopold Sello (1785 –1874) which included both dormitories and bonus houses and building of miners‘ colonies. Favourable mortgages and bonuses, which were however dependent on the good conduct of the house builders, offered miners the opportunity of building their own home with a small garden. Some leased a room in their own home to miners seeking lodging. With extension of the transport network since the 1870‘s, the number of weekly commuters decreased and the area from which labour could be recruited expanded at the same time.

Sleeping quarters at Luisenthal pit in Altenkessel, 1920s by Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Outline of different apartments for miners, 19th century by Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Work shoes by Gunter Altenkirch, Gersheim-RubenheimState Chancellery Saarland

Shoes for hardened walkers by Gunter Altenkirch, Gersheim-RubenheimState Chancellery Saarland

Application for a hardened walker path by Landesarchiv SaarbrückenState Chancellery Saarland

House rules for sleeping quarters 1875 by Landesarchiv SaarbrückenState Chancellery Saarland

Bag for sleeping quarters by Gunter Altenkirch, Gersheim-RubenheimState Chancellery Saarland

Towel by Gunter Altenkirch, Gersheim-RubenheimState Chancellery Saarland

Room in sleeping quarters by RAG Bildarchiv, SaarbrückenState Chancellery Saarland

Melin pit sleeping quarters by Landesarchiv SaarbrückenState Chancellery Saarland

Valuation of the miner Heinrich Gottschall, elevation, floor plan and building description by Stefan Weszkalnys, SaarbrückenState Chancellery Saarland

Mould and rammers for gallop stones by Gunter Altenkirch, Gersheim-RubenheimState Chancellery Saarland

3 blueprints of the miner premium houses in 1880 3 blueprints of the miner premium houses in 1880 by Historisches Museum SaarState Chancellery Saarland

Elversberg miner houses by Landesbildstelle Saarland im LPMState Chancellery Saarland

Premium house construction with workers and family Premium house construction with workers and family by Heimatmuseum SteinbachState Chancellery Saarland

Madenfelderhof by RAG Bildarchiv, SaarbrückenState Chancellery Saarland

Fischbach miner colony by Landesbildstelle Saarland im LPMState Chancellery Saarland

Map of miners' houses by Landesarchiv SaarbrückenState Chancellery Saarland

Mining festival by Horst Schmadel, Seingbouse (F)State Chancellery Saarland

Marching band by RAG Bildarchiv, SaarbrückenState Chancellery Saarland

Articles of Association of the Catholic Mining and Iron Works Workers' Association by Horst Schmadel, Seingbouse (F)State Chancellery Saarland

Three miner's hats Three miner's hats by Saarländisches Bergbaumuseum BexbachState Chancellery Saarland

Mining Health Insurance Association by Historisches Museum SaarState Chancellery Saarland

Gymnastics club by Heimatmuseum QuierschiedState Chancellery Saarland

Flag of the Camphausen royal coal pit Flag of the Camphausen royal coal pit by Bergmannsverein Fischbach-CamphausenState Chancellery Saarland

Flag of the Fraulautern Miners' Association Flag of the Fraulautern Miners' Association by Berg- und Hüttenarbeiterverein ›St. Barbara‹ Saarlouis-Fraulautern 1861 e.V.State Chancellery Saarland

Barbara Fraternity Schiffweiler Association flag Barbara Fraternity Schiffweiler Association flag by St. Barbara Verein SchiffweilerState Chancellery Saarland

Flag of the Fraulautern Miners' Association by Berg- und Hüttenarbeiterverein ›St. Barbara‹ Saarlouis-Fraulautern 1861 e.V.State Chancellery Saarland

Flag of the Fraulautern Miners' Association by Berg- und Hüttenarbeiterverein ›St. Barbara‹ Saarlouis-Fraulautern 1861 e.V.State Chancellery Saarland

And he has his bright light at night by Saarländischer Rundfunk, SaarbrückenState Chancellery Saarland

Bunk bed from sleeping quarters by Saarländisches Bergbaumuseum BexbachState Chancellery Saarland

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