The heritage: Mining in Saarland - Part IV

The Saarland – a mining power, Solidarity, Loud and heavy

By State Chancellery Saarland

Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes, Öffentlichkeitsarbeit

zur virtuellen Ausstellung "Das Erbe", die Ministerpräsidentin by Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Coal production in Saarland came to an end in 2012 after over 250 years. This was a defining moment for Saarland because it was almost impossible to imagine the federal state without the mining industry. The ups and downs of the entire federal state were closely linked to coal. Mining played a major role in the lives of almost all families in Saarland, with either a relative or an ancestor having worked in the industry. The fact that coal mining gave our state its own identity is largely thanks to the people who worked in it: the Saarland miners. They laid the foundations for economic development in Saarland and provided momentum for the 'economic miracle' in Germany with their hard work, influencing our state, its values and its cohesion like no other occupational group. The camaraderie and solidarity among miners was the model for the sense of community among people in Saarland. We are now faced with the task of keeping the memories of the mining industry alive. It is important to preserve the knowledge of the mining roots of our state and to pass this knowledge on, especially to young people. The virtual state exhibition DAS ERBE (the heritage) plays a central role in this culture of remembrance. We want this to highlight the special importance of the period characterised by the mining industry for the current and future Saarland society. The DAS ERBE exhibition focuses on miners, their lives, families and culture, their influence on togetherness in Saarland, and on what remains after the end of coal mining, rather than on machinery and mining towers. The exhibition highlights just how rich and varied the heritage of miners is for our state.
I hope that visitors to the "DAS ERBE" exhibition at the Open Gallery of the Google Cultural Institute in the Saarland State Chancellery learn something new about mining in Saarland and are able to gain a better understanding of work underground.

Coal handling at the harbour of Saarbrücken, 1920s by Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

The building of the French School of Mine Management in Saarbrücken, 1920s by Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

French armed forces parade in front of the Johanniskirche in Saarbrücken, most likely due to the French National Holiday, 1920s by Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

The last mass rally of status quo proponents at the Kieselhumes sports ground in Saarbrücken, 6 January 1935 by Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Photo of Dudweiler in 1938: children express solidarity between the Saar and Hitler as well as the Greater German Reich. by Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

View of the destroyed Kaiser-Wilhelm bridge in the direction of Malstatt with the partially destroyed St. Josef church, 1945 by Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

US troops marching into Homburg in March 1945. by Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

A political delegation inspecting the coal handling plant of the Camphausen pit, 1952 by Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

A parade float on the occasion of "The Week of the European Miner" in Saarbrücken demonstrates the Christian conditioning of miners in the Saarland region, August 1952. by Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Paul Kutsch (front left), president of the united trade union at a leaflet campaign organized by union members in front of the parliamentary building, 1950s by Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

The police act against demonstrators at a "Europa-Union" demonstration at the Wartburg in Saarbrücken on 13 August 1955. by Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Inauguration of the Saint Barbara Monument on the grounds of the mining site of the same name near Bexbach, 1951 by Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

THE IMPACT OF MINING ON THE SAARLAND by Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

The Saarland – a mining power

The Saarland as a national political entity results from mining and the 1920 Treaty of Versailles, which ruled that the steel and mining area plus the living areas of the commuting workers was to be cut off from Ger- many and brought under the League of Nations for 15 years. In the 1935 referendum, almost all Saarlanders decided to „rejoin“ the German Reich, forming an independent administrative unit under Nazi rule in the „Saarland“. The Saarland was divided from Germany again after WWII. As after 1920, its mines were ceded to French ownership, now under the „Régie des Mines de la Sarre“. The Saar State founded in 1947 was partly independent in an economic and monetary union with France. After the failed 1955 poll, the Saarland became politically a German Federal State on 1st January 1957; 10 months later, the new Saarland became joint owner of its coal resources for the first time in history with 26% of shares in the „Saarbergwerken“.

Poster of the "Federation of Saar Associations" lobbying for a "return to the Reich". by Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Commemorative float at a parade of the Federation of German Saar Associations in Hanover, 1925 by Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Title page of the "Rufer im Warndt" of March 1934: A Saar miner portrayed as the exploited "packhorse" of the government committee. by Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Title page of a special issue of the "Kölnische Illustrierte Zeitung" on the national referendum in the Saar region on 13 January 1935 by Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Letter from Prime Minister Johannes Hoffmann providing the Saarland's consent to the draft of the French-Saarlandic Mining Convention, 10 July 1950 by Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Coal Face by Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Working rules and regulations by Horst Schmadel, Seingbouse (F)State Chancellery Saarland

Postage stamps from the Saar region 1920 – 1935 Postage stamps from the Saar region 1920 – 1935 by Horst Schmadel, Seingbouse (F)State Chancellery Saarland

Medal Medal by Historisches Museum SaarState Chancellery Saarland

ID documents by Delf Slotta, BischmisheimState Chancellery Saarland

Penalty code of the Dilsburg pit, 1927 by Auktionshaus Dawo, ScheidtState Chancellery Saarland

Saar region and the Maginot Line. by Horst Schmadel, Seingbouse (F)State Chancellery Saarland

Postcard from the Saarland, 1930, "The Saar is German" Postcard from the Saarland, 1930, "The Saar is German" by Horst Schmadel, Seingbouse (F)State Chancellery Saarland

Remaux Pit by Horst Schmadel, Seingbouse (F)State Chancellery Saarland

Organizational chart of Saargruben AG by Delf Slotta, BischmisheimState Chancellery Saarland

Miners standing in front of a portrait of Hitler by Landesarchiv SaarbrückenState Chancellery Saarland

Adolf Hitler in front of the town hall of Saarbrücken by Horst Schmadel, Seingbouse (F)State Chancellery Saarland

Certificate of loyalty by Auktionshaus Dawo, ScheidtState Chancellery Saarland

Apprenticeship agreement for mining apprentices Apprenticeship agreement for mining apprentices by Horst Schmadel, Seingbouse (F)State Chancellery Saarland

Coal ration ticket 1943 Coal ration ticket 1943 by Horst Schmadel, Seingbouse (F)State Chancellery Saarland

"Saving coal is a national duty" by Delf Slotta, BischmisheimState Chancellery Saarland

Permit to enter the open road during an air raid by Delf Slotta, BischmisheimState Chancellery Saarland

Miner's lamp with engraving by Guido Wolff, SaarbrückenState Chancellery Saarland

Commemorative pin, badge for miners and metalworkers, "Deutsch die Saar immerdar" coins Commemorative pin, badge for miners and metalworkers, "Deutsch die Saar immerdar" coins by Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Pin of the Saar region mining administration by Horst Schmadel, Seingbouse (F)State Chancellery Saarland

Mail envelope Saar referendum of 1935 Mail envelope Saar referendum of 1935 by Horst Schmadel, Seingbouse (F)State Chancellery Saarland

Saar coal instead of firewood by Auktionshaus Lutz Eppard, WallertheimState Chancellery Saarland

Collective agreement for workers by Horst Schmadel, Seingbouse (F)State Chancellery Saarland

NSDAP return permit by Horst Schmadel, Seingbouse (F)State Chancellery Saarland

Workbook by Horst Schmadel, Seingbouse (F)State Chancellery Saarland

Temporary registration card, 1945 Temporary registration card, 1945 by Delf Slotta, BischmisheimState Chancellery Saarland

Certification by Delf Slotta, BischmisheimState Chancellery Saarland

Application for a Saar region residence permit by Delf Slotta, BischmisheimState Chancellery Saarland

Saar postage stamps 1945 to 1955 Saar postage stamps 1945 to 1955 by Horst Schmadel, Seingbouse (F)State Chancellery Saarland

"Un Mark" note by Horst Schmadel, Seingbouse (F)State Chancellery Saarland

"Un Franc" note by Horst Schmadel, Seingbouse (F)State Chancellery Saarland

Two coins by Horst Schmadel, Seingbouse (F)State Chancellery Saarland

Carte de Charbon by Horst Schmadel, Seingbouse (F)State Chancellery Saarland

French passport by Karl Heinz Janson, HeusweilerState Chancellery Saarland

Where does the coal go? by Auktionshaus Lutz Eppard, WallertheimState Chancellery Saarland

Honorary certificate by Horst Schmadel, Seingbouse (F)State Chancellery Saarland

Règlement Général by Horst Schmadel, Seingbouse (F)State Chancellery Saarland

Photo album by Horst Schmadel, Seingbouse (F)State Chancellery Saarland

Saarlandic ID cards A and B Saarlandic ID cards A and B by Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Work permit by Horst Schmadel, Seingbouse (F)State Chancellery Saarland

DPS poster by Landesarchiv SaarbrückenState Chancellery Saarland

"Dix Francs" note by Horst Schmadel, Seingbouse (F)State Chancellery Saarland

Wage agreement by Horst Schmadel, Seingbouse (F)State Chancellery Saarland

Postage stamp by Horst Schmadel, Seingbouse (F)State Chancellery Saarland

Working pass by Horst Schmadel, Seingbouse (F)State Chancellery Saarland

Saarland mining coin by Horst Schmadel, Seingbouse (F)State Chancellery Saarland

"Joho" sticker by Historisches Museum SaarState Chancellery Saarland

Postage stamps "Bergmann – Helfer der Menschheit" (literally: "Miners – helpers of humanity") by Horst Schmadel, Seingbouse (F)State Chancellery Saarland

"Europa" postage stamp by Horst Schmadel, Seingbouse (F)State Chancellery Saarland

Chair of the winding engine operator by Industrie Kultur Saar, QuierschiedState Chancellery Saarland

Sculpture of a miner by Stadtarchiv St. IngbertState Chancellery Saarland

Solidarity by Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Solidarity

There were 3 strikes with historically important results in 250 years’ mi- ning around the Saar. The organised workers‘ movement in the Saarland began in 1889/90 with a massive walkout led by Nikolaus Warken, nicknamed Eckstein and formed in Bildstock as a „legal protection association for the mining population“ with a strike fund and its own press. The „100 days strike“ early in 1923 began as a wage conflict, but was mainly fought ruthlessly as a national conflict against „French foreign rule“ during French occupation of the Ruhr. In November 1945, the united trade union also desired by France, the „Industrieverband Bergbau“ (mining industrial association) was set up and subsequently merged in the DGB as IG Bergbau und Energie in 1956. The IGB could demonstrate its trade union strength one last time around the Saar in the 1997 strike. In view of the dwindling significance of mining in Germany, it united with IG Chemie in the same year forming the IGBCE.

Telegraphic notification of the Saarbrücker Landrat on the occasion of a miners' congregation summoned by the chairman of the Rechtsschutzverein Warken in December of 1892. by Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Catechism questions for miners on strike by Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Nikolaus Warken, chairman of the Rechtsschutzverein and independent candidate in the Saarbrücken election district for the Reichstag elections of February 1890 by Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Announcement by the Bergwerksdirektion ("mining directorate") from 7 July 1877 that warns miners of "social-democratic agitators". by Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Comment by the Christlicher Bergarbeiterverband ("Christian Mining Association") on the negotiations surrounding the hundred days of striking in 1923. by Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Paul Kutsch, president of the united trade union and chairman of the Industrieverband Bergbau ("Mining Industry Association") by Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

The first Saar pit strike after many years: Luisenthal in May of 1962 by Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Portrait of Nikolaus Warken by Landesarchiv SaarbrückenState Chancellery Saarland

Miners' strike of 1893 by Historisches Museum SaarState Chancellery Saarland

Membership book of the trade association (Eduard Jochum) Membership book of the trade association (Eduard Jochum) by Karl Heinz Janson, HeusweilerState Chancellery Saarland

Receipt card Receipt card by Karl Heinz Janson, HeusweilerState Chancellery Saarland

Restoration of trade union rights by Stadtarchiv SaarbrückenState Chancellery Saarland

Call for 1 May 1946 demonstrations by Stadtarchiv SaarbrückenState Chancellery Saarland

Rally of the Christian trade union federation on 1 May 1948 by Stadtarchiv SaarbrückenState Chancellery Saarland

Call for 01 May 1948 demonstrations by Stadtarchiv SaarbrückenState Chancellery Saarland

Ore and coal. The Saar wants to live! by Landesarchiv SaarbrückenState Chancellery Saarland

Gewerkschaft christlicher Saarbergleute (literally: "Union of Christian Saar miners") by Historisches Museum SaarState Chancellery Saarland

Statutes by Horst Schmadel, Seingbouse (F)State Chancellery Saarland

GCS membership book by Karl Heinz Janson, HeusweilerState Chancellery Saarland

Two election posters of the IGB Two election posters of the IGB by Archiv für soziale Bewegung, BochumState Chancellery Saarland

IGB member's booklet IGB member's booklet by Horst Schmadel, Seingbouse (F)State Chancellery Saarland

Contribution stamps by Horst Schmadel, Seingbouse (F)State Chancellery Saarland

GCS and IGB pennants GCS and IGB pennants by Berg- und Hüttenarbeiterverein ›St. Barbara‹ Horst Schmadel, Seingbouse (F) Saarlouis-Fraulautern 1861 e.VState Chancellery Saarland

Saarbrücken miners' parade by Horst Schmadel, Seingbouse (F)State Chancellery Saarland

Works council of Warndt pit by Horst Schmadel, Seingbouse (F)State Chancellery Saarland

IGBE election poster by Archiv für soziale Bewegung, BochumState Chancellery Saarland

GCS election appeal by Archiv für soziale Bewegung, BochumState Chancellery Saarland

Strike by Archiv für soziale Bewegung, BochumState Chancellery Saarland

Strike vote of 27 April 1962 by Archiv für soziale Bewegung, BochumState Chancellery Saarland

Membership book by Horst Schmadel, Seingbouse (F)State Chancellery Saarland

Identification card by Karl Heinz Janson, HeusweilerState Chancellery Saarland

Notification of admission, Dilsburg pit by Karl Heinz Janson, HeusweilerState Chancellery Saarland

Notification of admission, Luisenthal pit by Horst Schmadel, Seingbouse (F)State Chancellery Saarland

Miners' association book Miners' association book by Heimatmuseum Quierschied Horst Schmadel, Seingbouse (F) Karl Heinz Janson, HeusweilerState Chancellery Saarland

Permanent card and treatment card Permanent card and treatment card by Delf Slotta, BischmisheimState Chancellery Saarland

Identification card by Karl Heinz Janson, HeusweilerState Chancellery Saarland

Hospital staff by Heimatmuseum QuierschiedState Chancellery Saarland

Treatment by the "Werksfürsorgerin" Treatment by the "Werksfürsorgerin" by RAG Bildarchiv, SaarbrückenState Chancellery Saarland

Patient wards and X-ray room Patient wards and X-ray room by Heimatmuseum QuierschiedState Chancellery Saarland

Front view of clinic by Heimatmuseum QuierschiedState Chancellery Saarland

Breathing exercises by RAG Bildarchiv, SaarbrückenState Chancellery Saarland

Silicosis and atomizer treatments by RAG Bildarchiv, SaarbrückenState Chancellery Saarland

Miners while inhaling by RAG Bildarchiv, SaarbrückenState Chancellery Saarland

Loud and heavy by Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Loud and heavy

Owing to the particular situation under ground, application of techno- logy to the working processes by compressed air or electricity did not become established until much later than in other branches of industry. This admittedly brought tremendous relief from the traditionally hard phy- sical work under ground. Nevertheless, the introduction of technology was also accompanied by increasing noise pollution by large machines: heading machines superseded picks and pit horses were replaced by compressed air and diesel locomotives. One of the peculiarities of mining are the pick hammers which had been used since the 1920‘s and were even still used in isolated cases around the Saar up to 2012.

Flywheel of the electric hoisting machine of the Luisenthal pit, 1967 by Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Workers while stamping in the teaching area of the Franziska pit, October 1965 by Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

A cutting machine in the face of Camphausen pit, November 1965 by Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Working with a jackhammer inside a face, early 1950s by Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Drill rod with core bit by Guido Wolff, SaarbrückenState Chancellery Saarland

Drill head by Saarländisches Bergbaumuseum BexbachState Chancellery Saarland

Core bit by Gunter Altenkirch, Gersheim-RubenheimState Chancellery Saarland

Mallet and pickaxe Mallet and pickaxe by Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes Open GalleryState Chancellery Saarland

Pit pony by RAG Bildarchiv, SaarbrückenState Chancellery Saarland

Miners while welding by RAG Bildarchiv, SaarbrückenState Chancellery Saarland

Prop extraction by RAG Bildarchiv, SaarbrückenState Chancellery Saarland

Miners inside a face by RAG Bildarchiv, SaarbrückenState Chancellery Saarland

Roller cutter loader by RAG Bildarchiv, SaarbrückenState Chancellery Saarland

Cutter loader by RAG Bildarchiv, SaarbrückenState Chancellery Saarland

Tunnelling by RAG Bildarchiv, SaarbrückenState Chancellery Saarland

Mechanical pick by Guido Wolff, SaarbrückenState Chancellery Saarland

Cabinet of pneumatic hammers Cabinet of pneumatic hammers by RAG, SaarbrückenState Chancellery Saarland

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